Advertisement

Approaches to the Cognitive Rehabilitation of Children with Neuropsychological Impairment

  • Kenneth D. McCoy
  • Barbara C. Gelder
  • Renee E. VanHorn
  • Raymond S. Dean
Part of the Critical Issues in Neuropsychology book series (CINP)

Abstract

From its beginning, clinical neuropsychology in North America has focused on the diagnosis and localization of cortical lesions (e.g., Boll, 1974; Dean, 1985a; Reitan, 1974). This has been the case because few other procedures existed to locate a soft tissue lesion. However, advances in radiologic techniques have provided structural (CT scan, MRI scan) and functional images (PET scans) of the brain not available 25 years ago (Bigler, 1988). This increased sophistication of imaging techniques has resulted in a deemphasis of neuropsychological assessment in diagnosis and localization in the neurologic setting. Recent data continue to stress the utility of a neuropsychological approach in the treatment planning of cognitive impairment (see Diller & Gordon, 1981; Uomoto, 1992). In fact, a number of authors have argued that the future of clinical neuropsychology lies in advances in our understanding of patients’ functional deficits and planning rehabilitation approaches following cortical damage (Dean, 1982; 1985a; Diller & Gordon, 1981; Piasetsky, 1981). Indeed, Uomoto (1992) argued that clinical neuropsychology needs to assume the pivotal role in evaluation and rehabilitation of neurologic impairment.

Keywords

Traumatic Brain Injury Cognitive Deficit Brain Damage Learn Disability Experimental Child Psychology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamovich, B. B., Henderson, J., & Auerbach, S. (1985). Cognitive rehabilitation of closed head injured patients. San Diego: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alfano, A. M., & Meyerink, L. H. (1986). Cognitive retraining with brain-injured adults. VA Practitioner, 12, 13.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, R. L., & Faust, G. F. (1967). The effects of strong formal prompts in programmed instruction. American Educational Research Journal, 4, 345–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Annegers, J. F. (1983). The epidemiology of head trauma in children. In K. Shapiro (Ed.), Pediatric head trauma (pp. 1–10 ). Mount Kisco, NY: Futura.Google Scholar
  5. Barth, J. T., & Boll, T. J. (1981). Rehabilitation and treatment of central nervous system dysfunction: A behavioral medicine perspective. In Medical psychology: Contributions to behavioral medicine (pp. 241–266 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bauer, R. H. (1977). Memory processes in children with learning disabilities: Evidence for deficient rehearsal. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 24, 415–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bender, W. N. (1985). Differences between learning disabled and non-learning disabled children in temperament and behavior. Learning Disability Quarterly, 8, 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ben-Yishay, Y. (1981). Cognitive remediation after TBD: Toward a definition of its objectives, tasks, and conditions. In Working approaches to remediation of cognitive deficits in brain damaged persons (Rehabilitation Monograph No. 62 ). New York: New York University Medical Center, Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine.Google Scholar
  9. Ben-Yishay, Y. (1983). Cognitive remediation viewed from the perspective of a systematic clinical research program in rehabilitation. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 1, 4–6.Google Scholar
  10. Ben-Yishay, Y., & Diller, L. (1981). Rehabilitation of cognitive and perceptual defects in people with traumatic brain damage. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 4, 208–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ben-Yishay, Y., Diller, L., & Rattok, J. (1978). A modular approach to optimizing orientation, psychomotor alertness, and purposive behavior in severe head trauma patients. In Working approaches to cognitive deficits in brain damage (Rehabilitation Monograph No. 59 ). New York: New York University Medical Center, Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine.Google Scholar
  12. Ben-Yishay, Y., Diller, L., Rattok, J., Ross, B., Schaier, A., & Scherger, P. ( 1979, May). Working approaches to remediation of cognitive deficits in brain damaged persons. Supplement to the seventh annual workshop for rehabilitation professionals, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Ben-Yishay, Y., Rattok, J., Ross, B., Lakin, P., Cohen, J., & Diller, L. (1980). A remedial module for the systematic amelioration of basic attentional disturbance in head trauma patients. In Working approaches to cognitive deficits in brain damaged persons (Rehabilitation Monograph No. 61 ). New York: New York University Medical Center, Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine.Google Scholar
  14. Bigler, E. D. (1987). Acquired cerebral trauma: Behavioral, neuropsychiatrie, psychoeducational assessment and cognitive retraining issues. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 579–580.Google Scholar
  15. Bigler, E. D. (1988). Acquired cerebral trauma: Attention, memory, and language disorders. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 325–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Block, J. H. (Ed.). (1971). Mastery learning: Theory and practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  17. Bolger, J. P. (1981). Cognitive retraining: A developmental approach. Clinical Neuropsychology, 4, 66–70.Google Scholar
  18. Boll, T. J. (1974). Behavioral correlates of cerebral damage in children nine through fourteen. In R. M. Reitan and L. A. Davison (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications (pp. 171–191 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Boll, T. J. (1981). The Halstead-Reitan neuropsychology battery. In S. B. Filskov and T. J. Boll (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neuropsychology (pp. 42–65 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Bond, M. R. (1975). Assessment of the psychosocial outcome after severe head injury. In R. Porter and D. W. Fitzsimons (Eds.), Outcome of severe damage to the central nervous system (Ciba Foundation Symposium 34 ) (pp. 141–157 ). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  21. Bouillaud, J. (1825). Recherches cliniques propre a demontrer que le perte de la parole correspond a la lesion de lobules anterieurs du cerveau et a confirmer l’ opinion de M. Gall sur le siege de l’organe du language articule. Archives of General Medicine, 8, 25–45.Google Scholar
  22. Bracy, O. (1983). Computer based cognitive rehabilitation. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 1, 7–8, 18.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, R. T., & Alford, N. K. (1984). Ameliorating attentional deficits and concomitant academic deficiencies in learning disabled children through cognitive training. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 20–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Buffery, A. W. (1987). Brain function therapy: Computerized neuropsychological rehabilitation. Carrier Foundation Letter ( April, No. 124 ), 1–3.Google Scholar
  25. Case, R. (1972). Validation of a neo-Piagetian capacity construct. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 14, 45–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Case, R., Kurland, D. M., and Goldberg, J. (1982). Operational efficiency and the growth of short-term memory span. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 33, 386–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cooke, N. (1973). Neuropsychology: From theory into practice. Newsletter for Research in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 43–46.Google Scholar
  28. Dean, R. S. (1978). The use of the WISC-R in distinguishing learning disabled and emotionally disturbed children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 381–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dean, R. S. (1982). Neuropsychological assessment. In T. R. Kratochwill (Ed.), Advances in school psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 171–201 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  30. Dean, R. S. (1985a). Perspectives on the future of neuropsychological assessment. In B. S. Plake and J. C. Witt (Eds.), Buros-Nebraska series on measurement and testing: Future of testing and measurement (pp. 203–244 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Dean, R. S. (1985b). Neuropsychological assessment. In J. D. Cavenar, R. Michels, H. K. Brodie, A. M. Cooper, S. B. Guze, L. L. Judd, G. L. Klerman, and A. J. Solnit (Eds.), Psychiatry (pp. 1–175 ). Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  32. Dean, R. S., and Rattan, A. I. (1986). Measuring the effects offailure with learning disabled children. Paper presented at the annual convention of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists.Google Scholar
  33. Diller, L. (1976). A model for cognitive retraining in rehabilitation. The Clinical Psychologist, 29, 13–15.Google Scholar
  34. Diller, L., Ben-Yishay, Y., Gerstman, L. J., Gordon, W., Weinberg, J., Mandelberg, R., Schulman, P., and Shah, N. (1974). Studies in cognition and rehabilitation in hemiplegia (Rehabili-tation Monograph No. 50 ). New York: New York University Medical Center, Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine.Google Scholar
  35. Diller L., and Gordon, W. A. (1981). Rehabilitation and clinical neuropsychology. In S. B. Filskov andT. J. Boll (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology (pp. 702–733 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Diller, L. V., and Weinberg, J. (1977). Hemiinattention in rehabilitation: The evolution of a rational remediation program. Advances in Neuropsychology, 18, 63–82.Google Scholar
  37. Di Scala, C., Osberg, J. S., Gans, B. M., Chins, L. J., and Grant, C. C. (1991). Children with traumatic head injury: Morbidity and post-acute treatment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 7, 662–666.Google Scholar
  38. Eiben, C. F., Anderson, T. P., Lockman, L., Matthews, D. J., Dryja, R., Martin, J., Burrill, C., Cottesman, N., O’Brian, P., and Witte, L. (1984). Functional outcome of closed head injury in children and young adults. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 65, 168–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Evans, R. W. (1992). Mild traumatic brain injury. Traumatic Brain Injury, 3 (2), 427–439.Google Scholar
  40. Fowler, J. W., and Peterson, P. L. (1981). Increasing reading persistence and altering attributional style of learned helpless children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 251–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gianutsos, R., and Gianutsos, J. (1979). Rehabilitating the verbal recall of brain-injured patients by mnemonic training: An experimental demonstration using single-case methodology. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Giaquinto, S., and Fiori, M. (1992). THINKable, a computerized cognitive remediation: First results. Acta Neurologica, 14, 546–560.Google Scholar
  43. Goldstein, K. (1942). Aftereffects of brain-injuries in war (p. 204 ). New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  44. Grishy, E. L., and Schacter, D. L. (1988). Acquisition of domain-specific knowledge in patients with organic memory disorders. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 333–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gudeman, H., Golden, C., and Craine, J. (1978). The role of neuropsychological evaluation in rehabilitation of the brain injured patient: A program in neurotraining. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 8, 44 (MS No. 1693).Google Scholar
  46. Hall, R., and Broden, M. (1967). Behavior changes in brain-injured children through social reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 5, 463–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hallahan, D. P., and Sapona, R. (1983). Self-monitoring of attention with learning disabled children: Past research and current issues. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 16, 616–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hasher, L., and Zacks, R. T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108, 356–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Horton, A. M., Jr. (1979a). Behavioral neuropsychology: A clinical case study. Clinical Neuropsychology, 1 (3), 44–47.Google Scholar
  50. Horton, A. M., Jr. (1979b). Behavioral neuropsychology: Rationale and research. Clinical Neuropsychology, 1 (2), 20–23.Google Scholar
  51. Horton, A. M., Jr. (1981). Behavioral neuropsychology in the schools. School Psychology Review, 10 (3), 367–372.Google Scholar
  52. Hughlings-Jackson, J. (1932). Remarks of dissolution of the nervous system as exemplified by certain post-epileptic conditions. In J. Tayler (Ed.), Selected writings of John Hughlings-Jackson (Vol. 2 ). London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
  53. Jones, M. K. (1974). Imagery as a mnemonic aid after left temporal lobectomy: Contrasts between material-specific and generalized memory disorders. Neuropsychologia, 12, 21–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kennard, M. A. (1936). Age and other factors in motor recovery from precentral lesions in monkeys. American Journal of Physiology, 115, 138–146.Google Scholar
  55. Klonoff, H., and Low, M. (1974). Disordered brain function in young children and early adolescents: Neuropsychological and electroencephalographic correlates. In R. M. Reitan and L. A. Davison (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications (pp. 121–165 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  56. Klonoff, H., Low, M. D., and Clark, L. (1977). Head injuries in children: A prospective five year follow-up. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 40, 1211–1219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kraus, J. F. (1980). A comparison of recent studies on the extent of the head and spinal cord injury problem in the United States. Journal of Neurosurgery, 53 (Suppl.), 35–43.Google Scholar
  58. Kraus, J. F., Fife, D., Cox, P., Ramstein, K., and Conroy, C. (1986). Incidence, severity, and external causes of pediatric brain injury. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 140, 687–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Krop, H. (1971). Modification of hyperactive behavior of a brain-damaged, emotionally disturbed child. Training School Bulletin (Vineland), 68, 49–54.Google Scholar
  60. Land, P. (1964). Experimental studies of desensitization psychotherapy. In J. Wolpe, A. Salter, and L. J. Peyna (Eds.). The conditioning therapies (pp. 260–291 ). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  61. Leftoff, S. (1981). Learning functions for unilaterally brain damaged patients for serially and randomly ordered stimulus material: Analysis of retrieval strategies and their relationship to rehabilitation. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 3, 301–313.Google Scholar
  62. Levin, H. S., Benton, A. L., and Grossman, R. G. (1982). Neu-robehavioral consequences of closed head injury. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Levin, H. S., and Eisenberg, H. M. (1979a). Neuropsychological impairment after closed head injury in children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 4, 389–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Levin, H. S., and Eisenberg, H. M. (1979b). Neuropsychological outcome of closed head injury in children and adolescents. Child’s Brain, 5, 281–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lewinsohn, P. M., Danaher, B. G., and Kikel, S. (1977). Visual imagery as a mnemonic aid for brain injured persons. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 717–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Luria, A. R. (1963). Restoration of function after brain injury. New York: Macmillan Co.Google Scholar
  67. Lynch, W. J. (1981). The use of electronic games in cognitive rehabilitation. In L. E. Trexler (Ed.), Cognitive rehabilitation: Conceptualization and intervention (pp. 263–274 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  68. McGuire, T. C., and Sylvester, C. E. (1987). Neuropsychiatric evaluation and treatment of children with head injuries. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 590–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Matthews, C. G., Harley, J. P., and Malec, J. F. (1991). Guidelines for computer-assisted neuropsychological rehabilitation and cognitive remediation. Clinical Neuropsychology, 5, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nelson, V. S. (1992). Pediatric head injury. Traumatic Brain Injury; 3 (2), 461–474.Google Scholar
  71. Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  72. Piasetsky, E. B. (1981). The relevance of brain-behavior relationships for rehabilitation. In L. E. Trexler (Ed.), Cogni-tive rehabilitation: Conceptualization and intervention (pp. 115–130 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  73. Pirozzolo, F. J., and Papanicolaou, A. C. (1986). Plasticity and recovery of function in the central nervous system. In J. E. Obrzut and G. W. Hynd (Eds.), Child neuropsychology (Vol. 1 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  74. Prigatano, G. P. (1987). Recovery and cognitive retraining after craniocerebral trauma. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 603–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Raimondi, A. J., and Hirschauer, J. (1984). Head injury in the infant and toddler. Child’s Brain, 11, 12–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rattok, J., Ben-Yishay, Y., Ross, B., Lakin, P., Silver, S., Thomas, L., and Diller, L. (1982). A diagnostic-remedial system for basic attentional disorders in head trauma patients undergoing rehabilitation: A preliminary report. In Working approaches to remediation of cognitive deficits in brain damaged persons (Rehabilitation Monograph No. 64 ). New York: New York University Medical Center, Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine.Google Scholar
  77. Reitan, R. M. (1974). Methodological problems in clinical neuropsychology. In R. M. Reitan and L. A. Davison (Eds.),Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications(pp. 140–191 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  78. Reitan, R. M., and Sena, D. A. (1983). The efficacy of the RE-HABIT technique in remediation of brain-injured people.Google Scholar
  79. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  80. Reitan, R. M., and Wolfson, D. (1985). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery and REHABIT: A model for integrating evaluation and remediation of cognitive impairment. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 10–17.Google Scholar
  81. Reitan, R. M., and Wolfson, D. (1988). Traumatic brain injury, Volume II: Recovery and rehabilitation. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  82. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  83. Sena, D. A. (1985). The effectiveness of cognitive retraining for brain-impaired individuals. The International Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7, 62.Google Scholar
  84. Sena, D. A. (1986). The effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for brain-impaired patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 8, 142.Google Scholar
  85. Sena, H. M., and Sena, D. A. (1986). A quantitative validation of the effectiveness of cognitive retraining. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 74.Google Scholar
  86. Seretny, M. L., Dean, R. S., Gray, J. W., and Hartlage, L. C. (1986). The practice of clinical neuropsychology in the United States. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 90–94.Google Scholar
  87. Severson, R. A. (1970). Behavior therapy with severe learning disabilities. Unpublished manuscript, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  88. Silver, S., Ben-Yishay, Y., Rattok, J., Ross, B., Lakin, P., Piasetsky, E., Ezrachi, O., and Diller, L. (1983). Occupational outcomes in severe TBD’s following intensive cognitive remediation: An interim report. In Working approaches to remediation of cognitive deficits in brain damaged persons (Rehabilitation Monograph No. 66 ). New York: New York University Medical Center, Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine.Google Scholar
  89. Speight, I., Laufer, M. E., and Mattes, K. (1993). CIV (computer-aided interactive video): A novel application in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Computers in Human Behavior, 9, 95–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Strauss, A. A. (1947). Therapeutic pedagogy, a neuropsychiatric approach to special education. American Journal of Psychiatry, 104, 60–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Tarver, S. G., Hallahan, D. P., Kaufman, J. M., and Ball, D. W. (1976). Verbal rehearsal and selective attention in children with learning disabilities: A developmental lag. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 22, 375–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Task Force on Head Injury. (1984). Standards for cognitive rehabilitation. Erie, PA: American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.Google Scholar
  93. Telzrow, C. F. (1985). The science and speculation of rehabilitation in developmental neuropsychological disorders. InGoogle Scholar
  94. L. C. Hartlage and C. F. Telzrow (Eds.), The neuropsychology of individual differences (pp. 271–304). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  95. Telzrow, C. F. (1987). Management of academic and educational problems in head injury. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 536–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Teuber, H. L. (1974). Recovery of function after lesions of the central nervous system: History and prospects. Neuroscience Research Progress Bulletin, 12, 197.Google Scholar
  97. Uomoto, J. M. (1992). Neuropsychological assessment and cognitive rehabilitation after brain injury. Traumatic Brain Injury, 3 (2).Google Scholar
  98. Weinberg, J., and Diller, L. (1968). On reading newspapers by hemiplegic denial of visual disability. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Weinberg, J., Diller, L., Gordon, W. A., Gerstman, L. J., Lieberman, A., Lakin, P., Hodges, G., and Ezrachi, O. (1977). Visual scanning training effect on reading-related tasks in acquired right brain damage. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 58, 479–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wernicke, C. (1874). Der aphasische Symptomenkomplex. Breslau, Poland: M. Cohn and Weigert.Google Scholar
  101. Wilson, G. T., and O’Leary, K. D. (1980). Principles of behavior therapy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice—Hall.Google Scholar
  102. Wolpe, J. (1969). The practice of behavior therapy. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  103. Wood, R. L. (1988). Attention disorders in brain injury rehabili- tation. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 327–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth D. McCoy
    • 1
  • Barbara C. Gelder
    • 1
  • Renee E. VanHorn
    • 1
  • Raymond S. Dean
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuropsychology LabBall State UniversityMuncieUSA

Personalised recommendations