Mapping and Measuring Surfaces Using Reflection Confocal Microscopy

  • Alan Boyde
  • Sheila J. Jones


Even though today biological confocal microscopy is mainly performed using the fluorescence mode, the first biomedical applications used reflection microscopy of either fixed and stained brain (Minsky, 1988) or living brain (Petráň et al., 1968; Boyde, 1994). Many areas of special biological interest still involve the recording and analysis of confocal images of reflective interfaces. Within this field, one can identify an even narrower one in which the aim is to record the three-dimensional (3D) shape of a surface with exactitude. To date, this has usually implied that the biological object is dead or dormant, because it takes time to obtain a 3D data set, and the image will be spoiled if the object moves or changes shape during that time. Now, however, fast disk-scanning TSMs with flat spectrum sources and special objective lenses with linear chromatic dispersion (LCD) can provide 3D data in which height is coded in color, at video rate.


Chromatic Aberration Resorption Lacuna Reflection Confocal Microscopy Focus Level Color Insert 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Boyde
    • 1
  • Sheila J. Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Developmental BiologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK

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