A Novel Disialoganglioside (GD1α) with N-Acetylneuraminyl (α2 → 6)-N-Acetylgalactosamine Linkage in Rat Ascites Hepatoma Cells

  • Takao Taki
  • Yoshio Hirabayashi
  • Hidemi Ishikawa
  • Susumu Ando
  • Kazuo Kon
  • Koichi Tanaka
  • Makoto Matsumoto
Part of the FIDIA Research Series book series (FIDIA, volume 6)

Abstract

Gangliosides in plasma membranes have been assumed to be involved in cellular recognition sites such as receptors of bacterial toxins (van Heyningen et al., 1971; Cuatrecasas, 1973), viruses (Haywood, 1974; Holmgren et al., 1980), hormones (Mullin et al., 1976) and chemical mediators (Woolley and Gommi, 1965). On the other hand, some special gangliosides have been proposed to be regulators of cell growth or differentiation (Bremer et al., 1984; Tsuji et al., 1983). Furthermore, alteration of gangliosides associated with oncogenic transformation are well known phenomena (Hakomori, 1984). Since sialic acid of gangliosides plays a key role in these cellular reactions, number of sialic acids, manner of linkage and location of sialyl residues in the back bone structure of gangliosides are thought to be critical for the function of the cells. Sialic acids in ganglioside are attached to the internal or terminal galactose of ganglio-N-tetraose. In the biosynthesis of ganglio series gangliosides, sialic acid is transferred to the galactose moiety of lactosyl-ceramide, then N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose are transferred in stepwise fashion to form GMla. However, in rat ascites hepatoma cells, a biosynthetic pathway of ganglioside via asialogangliosides has been demonstrated by our structural and metabolic studies (Hirabayashi et al., 1978; Taki et al., 1979a). In the tumor cells, N-acetylgalactosamine is preferentially transferred to lactosylceramide and followed by a transfer of galactose to form gangliotetraosylceramide. Sialic acid is then transferred to the terminal galactose resulting in the formation of GMlb. From the series of study on glycolipids in the tumor cells, two major gangliosides, mono- and disialo-, were isolated.

Keywords

Sialic Acid Newcastle Disease Virus Sialic Acid Residue Jack Bean Neuraminic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

NDV

Newcastle disease virus

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takao Taki
    • 1
  • Yoshio Hirabayashi
    • 1
  • Hidemi Ishikawa
    • 1
  • Susumu Ando
    • 2
  • Kazuo Kon
    • 2
  • Koichi Tanaka
    • 2
  • Makoto Matsumoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryShizuoka College of PharmacyShizuoka 422Japan
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryTokyo Metropolitan Institute of GerontologyItabashi-ku, Tokyo 173Japan

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