Environmental Grain, Niche Diversification and Feeding Behaviour in Primates

  • Suzanne Ripley

Abstract

The broad course of primate evolution during the Tertiary era must be reconstructed in its floral and faunal setting. Certain mammals, including Homo and some other primate lineages, were able to adapt to widely fluctuating conditions during the second part of the Tertiary (Neogene) (Janis, 1982). Such ecosystems ranged from semi-evergreen rain-forests to woodlands, savannahs and grasslands with increasingly pronounced seasonality (Walter, 1971, 1973). These flexible primates were generalists, but their ancestors evolved in very different ecosystems — in the evergreen tropical rain-forests that predominated in the moist climate of the Paleogene. How can this transition be explained?

Keywords

Body Size Feeding Behaviour Large Body Size Biomass Density Primate Evolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, O.N. and Allen, E.K. (1981) “Leguminosae: Sourcebook of Characteristic, Uses, and Nodulation”. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  2. Axelrod, D.I. (1960) The evolution of flowering plants. In “The Evolution of Life” ( S. Tax, ed.), pp. 227–305. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, H.G. and Stebbins, G.L. (1965) “The Genetics of Colonizing Species”. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Bateson, G. (1942) Social planning and the concept of deuterolearning. In “Steps to an Ecology of Mind”, pp. 159–176 Ballantine Books, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Bearder, S.K. and Doyle, G.A. (1974) The ecology of bushbabies Galago senegalensis and GaZago crassicaudatus, with some notes on their behavior in the field. In “Prosimian Biology” ( R.D. Martin, G.A. Doyle and A. Walker, eds.), pp. 109–130. Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  6. Bearder, S.K. and Martin, R.D. (1980) Acacia gum and its use by bushbabies Galago senegalensis (Primates: Lorisidae). Int. J. PrimatoZ. 1: 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, C.B. (1976) “Origins and Early Evolution of Angiosperms”. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Bock, W.J. (1965) The role of adaptive mechanisms in the origin of higher levels of organization. Syst. ZooZ. 14: 272–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bourliére, F. (1974) The comparative ecology of rain forest mammals in Africa and in Tropical America: some introductory remarks. In “Tropical Forest Ecosystems” ( B. Meggers, E. Ayensu and W. Duckworth, eds.), pp. 279–292. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  10. Bourliére, F. (1974) How to remain a prosimian in a simian world. In “Prosimian Biology” ( R.A. Martin, G.A. Doyle and A. Walker, eds.), pp. 17–22. Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  11. Bourliére, F. and Hadley, M. (1970) The ecology of tropical savannahs. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1: 125–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, J.H. (1975) Geographical ecology of desert rodents. In “Ecology and Evolution of Communities” ( M.L. Cody and J.M. Diamond, eds.), pp. 315–341. The Belknap Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  13. Cain, A.J. (1969) Speciation in tropical environments: a summing up. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 1: 233–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calvert, J. (1982) Ecology of the lowland gorilla in Cameroun. Paper presented to IX Congr. of I.P.S., Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  15. Carson, H.L. (1965) Chromosomal morphism in geographically widespread species of Drosophila. In “The Genetics of Colonizing Species” ( H. Baker and G.L. Stebbins, eds.), pp. 503–531. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Charles-Dominique, P. (1971) Eco-ethologie des prosimians du Gabon. Biot. Gabonica 7: 121–228.Google Scholar
  17. Charles-Dominique, P. (1975) Nocturnality and diurnality: an ecological interpretation of these two modes of life. In “Phylogeny of the Primates” ( P. Luckett and F. Szalay, eds.), pp. 69–90. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Charles-Dominique, P. (1977) “Ecology and Behavior of Nocturnal Primates: Prosimians of Equatorial Africa”. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Chivers, D.J. (1980) “Malayan Forest Primates”. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Chivers, D.J.’and Hladik, C.M. (1980) Morphology of the gastrointestinal tract in primates: comparisons with other mammals in relation to diet. J. Mammal. 166: 337–386.Google Scholar
  21. Clutton-Brock, T.H. (1977) “Primate Ecology”. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  22. Cody, M.L. (1975) Towards a theory of continental species diversities: bird distributions over Mediterranean habitat gradients. In “Ecology and Evolution of Communities” ( M.L. Cody and J.M. Diamond, eds.), pp. 214–257. Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  23. Corner, E.J.H. (1949) The durian theory or the origin of the modern tree. Ann. Bot. 13: 367–414.Google Scholar
  24. Corner, E.J.H. (1958) The evolution of tropical forest. In “Evolution as a Process” (J. Huxley, A.C. Hardy and E.B. Ford, eds.), pp. 46–59. Collier Books, New York. 1963 Edition.Google Scholar
  25. Count, E.W. (1973) The biogenesis of human sociality. In “Being and Becoming Human”, pp. 1–118. Van Nostrand Reinholt, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Cronquist, A. (1968) “Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants”. Houghton Mifflin, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Davison, G.W.H. (1982) Convergence with terrestrial Cercopithecines by the monkey Rhinopithecus roxellanae. Folia primatol. 37: 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. DeVore, I. (1963) Comparative ecology and behavior of monkeys and apes. In “Classification and Human Evolution” ( S.L. Washburn, ed.), pp. 301–319. Wenner-Gren Foundation, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Diamond, J.M. (1975) Assembly of species communities. In “Ecology and Evolution of Communities” ( M.L. Cody and J.M. Diamond, eds.), pp. 342–344. The Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  30. Dittus, W. (1975) Population dynamics of the Toque monkey, Macaca sinica. In “Socioecology and Psychology of Primates” ( R.H. Tuttle, ed.), pp. 125–151. Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  31. Dittus, W. (1977) The social regulation of population density and age-sex distribution in the Toque monkey. Behaviour 63: 281–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dobzhansky, Th. (1965) “Wild” and “domestic” species of Drosophila. In “The Genetics of Colonizing Species” (H. Baker and G.L. Stebbins, eds.), pp. 533–546. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Doyle, J. (1978) Fossil evidence on the evolutionary origin of tropical trees and forests. In “Tropical Trees as Living Systems” ( P.B. Tomlinson and M.H. Zimmerman, eds.), pp. 330. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Eadie, J. (1970) Sheep production and pastoral resources. In “Animal Populations in Relation to Food Resources” ( A. Watson, ed.), pp. 7–24. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  35. Eaglen, R.H. (1980) Toothcomb homology and toothcomb function in extant Strepsirhines. Int. J. Primatol. 1: 275–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eisenberg, J.F. (1966) The social organizations of mammals. Handb. Zool. Band 8, Lieferung 39, 10: 1–92.Google Scholar
  37. Eisenberg, J.F. (1977) Comparative ecology and reproduction of New World monkeys. In “Biology and Conservation of Callithricidae” ( D.G. Kleiman, ed.), pp. 13–22. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  38. Eisenberg, J.F. (1978) The evolution of arboreal herbivores in the Class Mammalia. In “Ecology of Arboreal Folivores” ( G.G. Montgomery, ed.), pp. 135–152. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  39. Eisenberg, J.F. (1981) “The Mammalian Radiations”. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  40. Eisenberg, J.F. and Thorington, R.W. Jr. (1973) A preliminary analysis of a neotropical mammal fauna. Biotropica 5: 150–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Elton, C.S. (1973) The structure of invertebrate population inside Neotropical rainforest. J. Anim. Ecol. 42: 55–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Estes, R.D. (1974) Social organization of the African Bovidae. In Calgary Symposium, “The Behavior of Ungulates and its Relation to Management”. I.U.C.N. Publ., n.s. 24, 1: 166–205. I. U.C.N., Morges.Google Scholar
  43. Faaborg, J. (1977) Metabolic rates, resources and the occurrence of nonpasserines in terrestrial avian communities. Am. Nat. 111: 903–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Feeny, P. (1975) Biochemical coevolution between plants and their insect herbivores. In “Coevolution of Animals and Plants” ( L.E. Gilbert and P.H. Raven, eds.), pp. 3–19. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  45. Frankie, G.W. (1975) Tropical forest phenology and pollinator-plant co-evolution. In “Coevolution of Animals and Plants” ( L.E. Gilbert and P.H. Raven, eds.), pp. 192–210. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  46. Freeland, W.J. and Janzen, D. (1974) Strategies in herbivory by mammals: the role of secondary compounds. Am. Nat. 108: 269–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Garber, P. (1980) Locomotor behavior and feeding ecology of the Panamanian Tamarin (Saguinus oedipus geoffroyi; Callithricidae, Primates). Int. J. Primatol. 1: 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gingerich, P.D. (1976) Cranial anatomy and evolution of early Tertiary Plesiadapidae (Mammalia, Primates). Univ. Mich. Pap. Paleontol., Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  49. Gingerich, P.D. (1977) Radiation of Eocene Adapidae in Europe. Geobios, Mem. special 1: 165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gingerich, P.D., Smith, B. Holly and Rosenberg, K. (1982) Allometric scaling in the dentition of primates and prediction of body weight from tooth size in fossils. Amer. J. phys. Anthrop.Google Scholar
  51. Givnish, T.J. (1978) On the adaptive significance of compound leaves with particular reference to tropical trees. In “Tropical Trees as Living Systems” ( P.B. Tomlinson and M.H. Zimmerman, eds.), pp. 351–380. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Goffman, E.M. (1969) “Strategic Interaction”. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  53. Harcourt, A.H., Stewart, K.S. and Fossey, D. (1976) Male emigration and female transfer in wild mountain gorilla. Nature (Loud.) 263: 226–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harper, J.L. and White, J. (1974) The demography of plants. Ann. Rev. EcoZ. Syst. 5: 419–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Harrison, J.L. (1962) The distribution of feeding habits among animals in a tropical rainforest. J. Anim. EcoZ. 31: 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Harroway, D. (1983) The contest for primate nature: daughters of man-the-hunter in the field, 1960–1980. In “The Future of American Democracy: Views from the Left” ( M.E. Kann, ed.), pp. 175–207. Temple University Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  57. Hart, J.H. and Hillis, W.E. (1972) Inhibition of wood-rotting fungi by ellagitannins in the heartwood of Quercus alba. Phytopath. 62: 620–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hausfater, G. and Hrdy, S.B. (eds.) (1984) “Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives”. Aldine Press, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Heslop-Harrison, J. (1982) Pollen-stigma interaction and cross-incompatibility in the grasses. Science, N.Y. 215: 1358–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hickey, L. and Doyle, J. (1977) Early Cretaceous fossil evidence for angiosperm evolution. Botan. Rev. 43: 3–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hladik, C.M. (1975) Ecology, diet, and social patterning in Old and New World primates. In “Socioecology and Psychology of Primates” ( R.H. Tuttle, ed. ), pp. 3–36.Google Scholar
  62. Mouton, The Hague. Hladik, C.M. (1977) A comparative study of feeding strategies of two sympatric species of leaf monkeys: Presbytis senex and P. entellus. In “Primate Ecology” ( T.H. Clutton-Brock, ed.), pp. 481–501. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  63. Hladik, C.M. and Charles-Dominique, P. (1974) The behaviour and ecology of the sportive lemur (Lepilemur mustelinus) in relation to its dietary peculiarities. In “Prosimian Biology” ( R.D. Martin, G.A. Doyle and A. Walker, eds.), pp. 23–38. Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  64. Hladik, C.M., Charles-Dominique, P., Valdebouze, P., Delort-Laval, J. and Flanzy, J. (1971) La caecotrophie chez un primate phyllophage du genre Lemur et les correlations avec les particularities de son appareil digestif. Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. D, 272: 3191–3194.Google Scholar
  65. Hladik, C.M. and Chivers, D.J. (1978) Concluding discussion: ecological factors and specific behavioural patterns determining primate diet. In “Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol. 1, Behaviour” ( D.J. Chivers and J. Herbert, eds.), pp. 433–444. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  66. Hladik, C.M. and Guegen, L. (1974) Geophagie et nutrition minerale chez les primates sauvages. Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. D, 279: 1393–1396.Google Scholar
  67. Hrdy, S.B. (1979) Infanticide among animals: a review, classification, and examination of the implications for the reproductive strategies of females. J. Ethol. Sociobiol. 1: 13–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hrdy, S.B. (1981) “The Woman Who Never Evolved”. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  69. Janis, C. (1982) The evolution of horns in ungulates: ecology and paleoecology. Biol. Rev. 57: 261–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Janzen, D. (1971) Seed predation by animals. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2: 465–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Janzen, D. (1973) Sweep samples of tropical foliage insects: effects of seasons, vegetation types, elevation, time of day, and insularity. Ecology 54: 687–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jarman, P.J. (1974) Social organization of antelope in relation to their ecology. Behaviour 48: 215–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Karr, J.R. (1975) Production energy pathways and community diversity in forest birds. In “Tropical Ecological Systems” (F. Golley and E. Medina, eds.), pp. 161–176. Ecological Studies Vol. 11. Springer Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Kay, R.F. (1975) The function adaptations of primate molar teeth. Amer. J. phys. Anthrop. 43: 195–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kay, R.F. (1980) The ecology of Oligocene African Anthropoidea. Int. J. Primatol. 1: 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kinzey, W.G. (1978) Feeding behaviour and molar features in two species of Titi monkey. In “Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol. 1, Behaviour” ( D.J. Chivers and J. Herbert, eds.), pp. 373–386. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  77. Kinzey, W.G., Rosenberger, A. and Ramirez, M. (1975) Vertical clinging and leaping in a neotropical anthropoid. Nature, (Lond.) 255: 327–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Klinge, H., Rodriguez, W.A., Brunig, E. and Fittkau, E.J. (1975) Biomass and structure in a central Amazonian rainforest. In “Tropical Ecological Systems” (F. Golley and E. Medina, eds.), pp. 115–122. Ecological Studies Vol. 11. Springer Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Kortlandt, A. and Kooij, M. (1963) Protohominid behavior in primates (preliminary communication). Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 10: 61–88.Google Scholar
  80. Kummer, H. (1971) “Primate Societies”. Aldine-Atherton, Chicago.Google Scholar
  81. Leakey, M.G. (1982) Extinct large colobines from the PlioPleistocene of Africa. Amer. J. phys. Anthrop. 58: 153–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lee, R.B. (1972) Population growth and the beginnings of sedentary life among the:Kung Bushmen. In “Population Growth: Anthropological Implications” ( B. Spooner, ed.), pp. 329–342. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  83. Leuthold, W. (1977) “African Ungulates”. Springer Verlag, Berlin. Levin, D.A. (1976) Alkaloid-bearing plants: an eco-geographic perspective. Am. Nat. 110: 261–284.Google Scholar
  84. Levins, R. (1975) Evolution in communities near equilibrium. In “Ecology and Evolution of Communities” ( M.L. Cody and J. Diamond, eds.), pp. 16–50. Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  85. Lewin, R. (1982) Food fuels reproductive success. Science, N.Y. 217: 238–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mabry, T.J. and DiFeo, D.R. (1973) The role of the secondary plant chemistry in the evolution of the Mediterranean scrub vegetation. In “Mediterranean Type Ecosystems” ( F. di Castri and M. Mooney, eds.), pp. 121–155. Fischer Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. MacArthur, R.H. (1968) The theory of the niche. In “Population Biology and Evolution” ( R.C. Lewontin, ed.), pp. 159–176. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York.Google Scholar
  88. McCracken, G. and Bradbury, J.W. (1981) Social organization and kinship in the polygynous bat Phyllostomatus hastatus. Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 8: 11–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. MacLean, P.D. (1978) The evolution of three mentalities. In “Human Evolution: Biosocial Perspectives” ( S.L. Washburn and E. McCown, eds.), pp. 33–57. Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park.Google Scholar
  90. McKey, D. (1975) The ecology of coevolved seed dispersal systems. In “Coevolution of Animals and Plants” ( L.E. Gilbert and P.H. Raven, eds.), pp. 159–191. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  91. McNab, B.K. (1980) Food habits, energetics, and the population biology of mammals. Am. Nat. 116: 106–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Martin, R.D. (1975) The bearing of reproductive behavior and ontogeny on Strepsirhine phylogeny. In “Phylogeny of the Primates” (W.P. Luckett and F.S. Szalay, eds.), pp. 265297. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  93. Martin, R.D. (1982) Et tu? tree shrew? Natural History 91: 26–32.Google Scholar
  94. Mathews, R.W. and Mathews, J.R. (1978) “Insect Behavior”. Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Moir, R.J. (1967) Ruminant digestion and evolution. In “Handbook of Physiology” (C.F. Code, ed.), vol. 5, section 6, pp. 2673–2694. American Physiological Society.Google Scholar
  96. Mooney, H.A., Ehleringer, J. and Berry, J.A. (1976) High photosynthetic capacity of a winter annual in death valley. Science, N.Y. 194: 322–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Moreau, R.E. (1966) “The Bird Faunas of Africa and Its Islands”. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  98. Morton, E.S. (1973) On the evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of fruit eating in tropical birds. Am. Nat. 107: 8–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Morton, E.S. (1978) Avian folivores: Why not? In “The Ecology of Arboreal Folivores” ( G.G. Montgomery, ed.), pp. 123–129. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  100. Mueller-Dombois, D. (1972) Crown distortion and elephant distribution in the woody vegetation of Ruhuna National Park, Ceylon. Ecology 53: 208–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nadkarni, N.M. (1981) Canopy roots: convergent evolution in rainforest nutrient cycles. Science, N.Y. 214: 1023–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Napier, J.R. (1970) Paleoecology and catarrhine evolution. In “Old World Monkeys” ( J.R. Napier and R.H. Napier, eds.), pp. 55–95. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  103. Napier, J.R. and Napier, P.H. (1967) “Handbook of Living Primates”. Academic, London.Google Scholar
  104. Nishida, T. and Hiraiwa, M. (1982) Natural history of a tool-using behavior by a wild chimpanzees in feeding upon wood-boring ants. J. Hum. EvoZ. 11: 73–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Oates, J.F. (1978) Water-plant and soil consumption by guereza monkeys (Colobus guereza): a relationship with minerals and toxins in diet? Biotropica 10: 241–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Odum, E.P. (1971)“Fundamentals of Ecology”, 3rd Edition. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  107. Oldeman, R.A.A. (1978) Architecture and energy exchange of dicotyledonous trees in the forest. In “Tropical Trees as Living Systems” ( P.B. Tomlinson and M.H. Zimmerman, eds.), pp. 535–560. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  108. Pages, E. (1970) Sur l’ecologie et les adaptations de l’orycterope et les pangolins sympatriques du Gabon. BioZ. Gabonica 6: 27–92.Google Scholar
  109. Petter, J-J. and Peyrieras, A. (1975) Preliminary notes on the behavior and ecology of Hapalemur griseus. In “Lemur Biology” ( I. Tattersall and R. Sussman, eds.), pp. 281–286. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pianka, E.R. (1975) Niche relations of desert lizards. In “Ecology and Evolution of Communities” ( M.L. Cody and J.M. Diamond, eds.), pp. 292–314. The Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  111. Price, P.W. (1975) “Insect Ecology”. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  112. Rahm, U. (1971) L’emploie des outils par les chimpanzees de l’ouest de la Cote d’Ivoire. Terre et Vie 25: 506–509.Google Scholar
  113. Richards, P.W. (1952) “The Tropical Rainforest”. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  114. Ricklefs, R.E. and Cox, G.W. (1972) Taxon cycle in the West Indian avifauna. Am. Nat. 106: 195–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ripley, S. (1965) “The ecology and behavior of the Ceylon gray langur, Presbytis entellus thersites”. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  116. Ripley, S. (1967) The leaping of langurs: a problem in the study of locomotor adaptations in primates. Amer. J. phys. Anthrop. 26: 149–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ripley, S. (1970) Leaves and leaf-monkeys: the social organization of foraging in gray langurs, Presbytie entellus thersites. In “Old World Monkeys” ( J.R. Napier and P.H. Napier, eds.), pp. 481–509. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Ripley, S. (1977a) Gray zones and gray langurs: is the ‘semi-’ concept seminal? Ybk. Phys. Anthrop. 20: 376–394.Google Scholar
  119. Ripley, S. (1977b) Crossing the arbo-terrestrial Rubicon: Etic dimensions of a habitat boundary transition. Ybk. Phys. Anthrop. 20: 395–407.Google Scholar
  120. Ripley, S. (1979) Environmental grain, niche diversification and positional behavior in Neogene primates: an evolutionary hypothesis. In “Environment, Behavior, and Morphology; Dynamic Interactions in Primates” ( M. Morbeck, H. Preuschoft and N. Comberg, eds.), pp. 37–74. Gustav Fischer Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  121. Ripley, S. (1980) Infanticide in langurs and man: adaptive advantage or social pathology? In “Biosocial Mechanisms of Population Regulation” ( M.N. Cohen, R.S. Malpass and H.G. Klein, eds.), pp. 349–390. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  122. Root, R.B. (1967) The niche exploitation pattern of the blue grey gnatcatcher. Ecol. Monogr. 37: 220–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rose, M.D. (1976) Bipedal behavior of olive baboons (Papio anubis) and its relevance to an understanding of the evolution of human bipedalism. Amer. J. phys. Anthrop. 44: 247–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sarukhan, J. (1978) Studies on the demography of tropical trees. In “Tropical Trees and Living Systems” ( P.B. Tomlinson and M.H. Zimmerman, eds.), pp. 163–184. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  125. Schmidt-Neilson, K. (1972) Locomotion: energy cost of swimming, flying, and running. Science, N.Y. 177: 222–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Seigler, D. and Price, P.W. (1976) Secondary compounds in plants: primary functions. Am. Nat. 110: 101–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sinclair, A.R.E. (1975) The resource limitation of trophic levels in tropical grassland ecosystems. J. Anim. EcoZ. 44: 497–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Solbrig, O.T., Jain, S., Johnson, G.B. and Raven, P.H. (1979) “Topics in Plant Population Biology”. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  129. Stebbins, G.L. (1970) Adaptive radiation of reproductive character- istics in angiosperms I. Pollination mechanisms. Ann. Rev. EcoZ. Syst. 1: 307–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stebbins, G.L. (1972) Adaptive radiation of reproductive characteristics in angiosperms II. Seeds and seedlings. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2: 237–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Stebbins, G.L. (1974) “Flowering Plants: Evolution above the Species Level”. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  132. Struhsaker, T.T. (1975) “The Red Colobus Monkey”. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  133. Sugiyama, Y. (1976) Characteristics of the ecology of the Himalayan langurs. J. Hum. Evol. 5: 249–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Swain, T. (1978) Plant animal coevolution: a synoptic view of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. In “Biochemical Aspects of Plant and Animal Coevolution” ( J.B. Horborne, ed.), pp. 3–19. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  135. Szalay, R.S. and Delson, E. (1979) “Evolutionary History of the Primates”. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  136. Takhtajan, A. (1969) “Flowering Plants: Origin and Dispersal”. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh (translation).Google Scholar
  137. Takhtajan, A. (1976) Neoteny and the origin of flowering plants. In “Origin and Early Evolution of the Angiosperms” ( C.B. Beck, ed.), pp. 207–219. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  138. Taylor, C.R., Caldwell, S.L. and Rountree, V.J. (1972) Running up and down hills: some consequences of size. Science, N.Y. 178: 1096–1097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Teleki, G. (1973) “The Predatory Behavior of Wild Chimpanzees”. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  140. Teleki, G. (1974) Chimpanzee subsistence technology: materials and skills. J. Hum. EvoZ. 3: 575–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Teleki, G. (1975) Primate subsistence patterns: collector predators and gatherer-hunters. J. Hum. Evol. 4: 125–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Terborgh, J.W. and Faaborg, J. (1980) Saturation of bird communities in the West Indies. Am. Nat. 116: 178–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Terborgh, J.W. and Janson, C. (in press) “The Behavioral Ecology of Five New World Primates”. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Tomlinson, P.B. and Zimmerman, M.B. (1978) “Tropical Trees as Living Systems”. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  145. Van Valen, L. (1971) Adaptive zones and the orders of mammals. Evolution 25: 420–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Vaughn, T.A. (1972) “Mammalogy”. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  147. Walker, E.P. (1975) “Mammals of the World”, 3rd Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  148. Walter, H. (1971) “Ecology of Tropical and Subtropical Vegetation”. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  149. Walter, H. (1973) “Vegetation of the Earth in Relation to Climate and the Eco-physiological Conditions”. Heidelberg Science Library, Vol. 15.Google Scholar
  150. Whitmore, T.C. (1978) Gaps in the forest canopy. In “Tropical Trees as Living Systems” ( P.B. Tomlinson and M.H. Zimmerman, eds.), pp. 639–655. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  151. Whittaker, R.H. (1975) “Communities and Ecosystems”, 2nd Edition. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  152. Wilson, E.O. (1961) The nature of the taxon cycle in the Melanesian ant fauna. Am. Nat. 95: 169–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wilson, E.O. (1971) “The Social Insects”. The Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  154. Wilson, E.O. (1975) “Sociobiology: the New Synthesis”. The Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  155. Wrangham, R.W. (1979) On the evolution of ape social systems. Soc. Sci. Inform. 18: 335–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wright, S. (1940) Breeding structure of population in relation to speciation. Am. Nat. 74: 232–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne Ripley
    • 1
  1. 1.EnglewoodUSA

Personalised recommendations