Abstract

Cider is generally regarded as a drink made from apples. In North America, the term ‘cider’ generally refers to cloudy unpasteurised apple juice, unless qualified as ‘hard cider’ to denote a fermented product. In Europe, however, terms such as cider, cidre (France) or sidra (Spain) are exclusively reserved for the fermented product, which is the topic of this chapter. German-speaking countries also produce cider, where the product is defined as ‘Apfelwein’ or, colloquially, ‘Ebbelwoi’. A similar fruit wine (perry) is made throughout Europe on a much smaller scale from pear juice.

Keywords

Lactic Acid Bacterium Wine Yeast Pectin Methyl Esterase Fermented Beverage Pear Juice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barker, B.T.P. (1906) Cider sickness. Ann. Rept. Long Ashton Res. Stn. for 1906, 30-31.Google Scholar
  2. Baron, A. and Drilleau, J.F. (1982) Utilisation of pectin esterases in the cider industry. In Use of Enzymes in Food Technology, (ed.) Dupuy, P. Lavoisier, Paris. pp. 471–476.Google Scholar
  3. Beech, F.W. (1972a) English cidermaking — technology, microbiology and biochemistry. In Progress in Industrial Microbiology. (ed.) Hockenhull, D.J.D. Churchill Livingstone, London, pp. 133–213.Google Scholar
  4. Beech, F.W. (1972b) Cider making and cider research — a review. J. Inst. Brew. 78, 477.Google Scholar
  5. Beech, F.W. (1993) Yeasts in Cider Making. In The Yeasts, 2nd edn Vol. 5, Yeast Technology (eds) Rose, A.H. and Harrison, J.S. Academic Press, London. pp. 169–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beech, F.W. and Carr, J.G. (1977) Cider and Perry. In Economic Microbiology, Vol. 1, Alcoholic Beverages, (ed.) Rose, A.H. Academic Press, London. pp. 139–313.Google Scholar
  7. Beech, F.W. and Davenport, R.R. (1970) The role of yeasts in cider making. In The Yeasts, Vol 3, Yeast Technology (eds) Rose A.H. and Harrison J.S. Academic Press, London, pp. 73–146.Google Scholar
  8. Berger, R.G., Dettweiler, G.D. and Drawert, F. (1988) Occurrence of C8 diols in apples and juices. Deutsch. Lebensm. Rundsch., 84(11), 344–347.Google Scholar
  9. Bizeau, C., Le Quere, J.M., Michel, A. and Drilleau, J.-F. (1992) Possibilities for modelling cider fermentation. Industries Agricoles et Alimentaires, 109, 7–9.Google Scholar
  10. Burroughs, L.F. and Sparks, A.H. (1964) The identification of sulphur dioxide binding compounds in apple juices and ciders J. Sci. Food Agric, 15, 176–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burroughs, L.F. and Sparks, A.H. (1973) The sulphite binding power of wines and ciders (Parts I–III). J. Sci. Food Agric, 24, 187–198, 199-206, 207-217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carr, J.G. (1983) Microbes I have known. J. Appl. Bacteriol, 55, 383–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carr, J.G. (1987) Microbiology of wines and ciders. In Essays in Agricultural and Food Microbiology, (eds) Norris, J.R. and Pettipher, G.L. John Wiley, London, pp. 291–307.Google Scholar
  14. Charley, V.L.S. (1949) The Principles and Practice of Cider-Making. Leonard Hill, London (An edited translation of Warcollier La Cidrerie 1928).Google Scholar
  15. Craig, J.T. and Heresztyn, T. (1984) Substituted tetrahydropyridines in mousy wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic, 35, 46–48.Google Scholar
  16. Downes, J.W. (1994) Equipment for extraction of fruit juices. In Production and Packaging of Non-carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages, 2nd edn, (ed.) Ashurst, P.R. Blackie, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  17. Downing, D.L. (1989) Fermented cider. In Processed Apple Products (ed.) Downing, D.L. AVI Van Nostrand, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Drilleau, J.F. (1988) Cidre, jus de pommes et concentrés. In Les Industries Agricoles et Alimentaires, (ed.) Scriban, R. Lavoisier, Paris, pp. 137–151.Google Scholar
  19. Drilleau, J.F. (1989) La Cidrerie. In Microbiologie Alimentaire, Vol. 2, ‘Les Fermentations Alimentaires’, (ed.) Bourgeois, C.M. and Larpent, J.P. Lavoisier, Paris, pp. 103–112.Google Scholar
  20. Drilleau, J.F. (1992) Lactic acid bacteria in cider. In Acte du Colloque ‘Lactic 91’ (Caen 12/13 September 1991), University of Caen, France, pp. 275–291.Google Scholar
  21. Dürr, P. (1986) The flavour of cider. In Food Flavour B — the Flavour of Beverages, (eds) Morton, I.D. and Macleod, A.G. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 85–97.Google Scholar
  22. Evelyn, J. (1664) Pomona, John Martyn and James Allestry, London.Google Scholar
  23. Goodenough, P.W. and Lea, A.G.H. (1979) Oxidation of cider procyanidins by apple oxidase systems. Ann. Rept. Long Ashton Res. Stn for 1979, 207-214.Google Scholar
  24. Goodenough, P.W., Kessell, S., Lea, A.G.H. and Loeffler, T. (1983) Studies on the polyphenoloxidase of Malus pumila. Phytochemistry, 22, 359–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grosch, W. and Schieberle, P. (1991) The aroma of bread. In Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages, (ed.) Maarse, H. Marcel Dekker, New York. pp. 41–77.Google Scholar
  26. Heresztyn, T. (1986) Formation of substituted tetrahydropyridines by Brettanomyces and Lactobacillus isolated from mousy wines. Am. J. Enology and Vitic., 37, 127–132.Google Scholar
  27. Hubert, C., Brunerie, P., Le Quere, J.M and Drilleau, J.F. (1990) Les composés volatils du cidre — extraction rapide et dosage. Science des Aliments, 10, 603–618.Google Scholar
  28. Jakob, L. (1991) Keller Wirtschaft, 5th edn. Fachverlag Dr Fraund, Mainz, Germany.Google Scholar
  29. Knight, T.A. (1801) A Treatise on the Culture of the Apple and Pear and on the Manufacture of Cider and Perry, 2nd edn, H. Proctor, Ludlow.Google Scholar
  30. Lea, A.G.H. (1978) Phenolics of ciders — procyanidins. J. Sci. Food Agric, 29, 471–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lea, A.G.H. (1982) Analysis of phenolics in oxidising apple juice by HPLC using a pH shift method. J. Chromatog, 238, 253–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lea, A.G.H. (1984) Colour and tannin in English cider apples. Flüssiges Obst, 51, 356–361.Google Scholar
  33. Lea, A.G.H. (1989) Cider vinegar. In Processed Apple Products, (ed.) Downing D.L. AVI Van Nostrand, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Lea, A.G.H. (1990) Bitterness and astringency — the procyanidins of fermented apple ciders. In Bitterness in Foods and Beverages (Dev. Food Sci. 25), (ed.) Rouseff R. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 123–143.Google Scholar
  35. Lea, A.G.H. (1991) The use of enzymes in beverage production. In Enzymes in Food Processing, (eds) Tucker, G.A. and Woods, L.F.J. Blackie, Glasgow, pp. 194–220.Google Scholar
  36. Lea, A.G.H. (1994) Apple Juice. In Production and Packaging of Non-carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages, 2nd edn, (ed.) Ashurst, P.R. Blackie, Glasgow, UK.Google Scholar
  37. Lea, A.G.H. and Arnold, G.M. (1978) Phenolics of ciders — bitterness and astringency. J. Sci. Food Agric, 29, 478–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lea, A.G.H. and Arnold, G.M. (1983) Bitterness, astringency and the chemical composition of ciders. In Sensory Quality in Foods and Beverages, (eds) Williams, A.A. and Atkin, R.K. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK, pp. 203–211.Google Scholar
  39. Lea, A.G.H. and Beech, F.W. (1978) Phenolics of ciders — the effect of cultural conditions. J. Sci. Food Agric, 29, 493–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lea, A.G.H. and Timberlake, C.F. (1978) Phenolics of ciders — the effect of processing. J. Sci. Food Agric, 29, 484–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Morgan, J. and Richards, A. (1993) The Book of Apples. Ebury Press, London.Google Scholar
  42. NACM (National Association of Cidermakers) (1992) Code of Practice for the Production of Cider and Perry.Google Scholar
  43. Noble, A.C. (1990) Bitterness and astringency in wine. In Bitterness in Foods and Beverages (Dev. Food Sci. 25), (ed.) Rouseff, R. Elsevier, Amsterdam. pp. 145–158.Google Scholar
  44. Ough, C.S. and Groat, M.L. (1978) Interaction of soluble solids with yeast strain and fermentation temperature in clarified fermenting musts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 35, 881–885.Google Scholar
  45. Pliny (the Elder) (reissue 1967) Natural History Loeb Parallel Text Edition, Heinemann, London.Google Scholar
  46. Pollard, A. and Beech, F.W. (1957) Cider-making. Rupert Hart-Davis, London.Google Scholar
  47. Possmann, P. and Lea, A.G.H. (1992) A tabular comparison of cider, cidre and apfelwein. Flüssiges Obst., 59, 486–487.Google Scholar
  48. Proulx, A. and Nichols, L. (1980) Sweet and Hard Cider. Garden Way Publishing, Pownal, VT, USA.Google Scholar
  49. Revier, M. (ed.) (1985) Le cidre — hier et aujourd’hui. La Nouvelle Librairie, Paris.Google Scholar
  50. Roach, F.A. (1985) Cultivated Fruits in Britain — Their Origin and History. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  51. Salih, A.G., Drilleau, J.F., Divies, C. and Lenzi, P. (1987) Factors contributing to the control of malo-lactic change in ciders. Science des Aliments, 7, 205–221.Google Scholar
  52. Salih, A.G., Drilleau, J.-F., Cavin, F.F., Divies, C. and Bourgeois, CM. (1988) A survey of microbiological aspects of cider making. J. Inst. Brew., 94, 5–8.Google Scholar
  53. Schanderl, H.G., Koch, J. and Kolb, E. (1981) Fruchtweine, 7th edn. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  54. Schölten, G. (1992) What would RSK values for cider be like? Flüssiges Obst, 59, 466–471.Google Scholar
  55. Schwab, W. and Schreier, P. (1988) Simultaneous enzyme catalysis extraction — a technique for the study of flavour precursors. J. Agric. Food. Chem., 36, 1238–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schwab, W. and Schreier, P. (1990) Glycosidic conjugates of aliphatic alcohols from apple fruits. J. Agric. Food, Chem., 38, 757–763 (see also Phytochemistry, (1989) 28, 157-160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Strauss, C.R. and Heresztyn, T. (1984) Acetyl tetrahydropyridines — a cause of mousy taint in wine. Chem. Ind., 109-110.Google Scholar
  58. Tucknott, O.G. (1977) The Origin of Mousiness in Fermented Beverages Ph.D Thesis, University of Bristol, UK.Google Scholar
  59. Wallace, T. and Marsh, R.W. (eds) (1953) Science and Fruit. Long Ashton Research Station, University of Bristol, UK.Google Scholar
  60. Whiting, G.C. (1976) Organic acid metabolism of yeasts during alcoholic fermentation — a review. J. Inst. Brew., 82, 84–92.Google Scholar
  61. Wilkins, C.K. (1990) Analysis of indole and skatole in porcine gut contents. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 25, 313–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Williams, A.A. (1974) Flavour research and the cider industry. J. Inst. Brew., 80, 455–470.Google Scholar
  63. Williams, A.A. (1975) Volatile aroma components produced during fermentation of a sugar solution. In Ann. Rept. Long Ashton Res. Stn. for 1975, pp. 142-143.Google Scholar
  64. Williams, A.A. and May, H.V. (1981) Examination of cider volatiles using electron impact and chemical ionisation gas chromatography mass spectrometry. J. Inst. Brew., 87, 372–375.Google Scholar
  65. Williams, A.A. and Tucknott, O.G. (1971) Volatile constituents of fermented cider — draught dry cider blend. J. Sci. Food. Agric, 22, 264–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Williams, A.A. and Tucknott, O.G. (1978) Neutral volatile components of fermented cider — minor components from Sweet Coppin apple juice. J. Sci. Food Agric, 29, 381–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Williams, A.A., May, H.V. and Tucknott, O.G. (1978) Examination of fermented cider volatiles after concentration on Porapak Q. J. Inst. Brew., 84, 97–100.Google Scholar
  68. Williams, A.A., Lewis, M.S. and Tucknott, O.G. (1980) The neutral volatile components of cider apple juices. Food Chem., 6, 139–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Williams, A.A., Tucknott, O.G., Lewis, M.J., May, H.V. and Wachter, L. (1987) Cryogenic matrix isolation GC/IR in the analysis of flavour extracts. In Flavour Science and Technology, (eds) Martens, M., Dalen, G.A. and Russwurm, H. John Wiley, London, pp. 259–270.Google Scholar
  70. Williams, R.R. (1987) In Bulmer’s Pomona. Fourth Estate Ltd, London.Google Scholar
  71. Williams, R.R. (ed.) (1988) Cider and Juice Apples — Growing and Processing. Long Ashton Research Station, University of Bristol, UK.Google Scholar
  72. Williams, R.R. and Child, R.D. (1965) The identification of cider apples. In Annu. Rept. Long Ashton Res. Stn for 1965, pp. 71-89.Google Scholar
  73. Worlidge, J. (1678) Vinetum Britannicum: or a Treatise on Cider, T. Dring and T. Burrell, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. G. H. Lea

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations