Behavioral Approaches to Language and Communication

  • Edward G. Carr
Part of the Current Issues in Autism book series (CIAM)

Abstract

In the 1950s, there was a spirited and sometimes acrimonious debate between psycholinguists and behaviorists concerning the proper way of conceptualizing language (Chomsky, 1959; Skinner, 1957). It appears, in retrospect, that much of the controversy stemmed from the fact that proponents of the two viewpoints had legitimate but orthogonal goals. Thus, psycholinguists were most interested in being able to construct a grammar, that is, a system of rules capable of accounting for all possible language outputs, outputs that were of interest only as a reflection of underlying linguistic competence. Since competence is determined by the interaction of a number of cognitive processes, an individual’s performance, that is, his or her verbal behavior, is peripheral to this approach. Behaviorists, in contrast, had little interest in understanding the formal properties of language or its underlying cognitive determinants, but they had a great deal of interest in understanding how language could be used by one individual to influence the behavior of another. Thus, for the behaviorist, systematic manipulation of verbal behavior became of paramount importance and educational intervention quickly assumed a central place in the research literature of the field. Today, much of the Stürm and Dräng that characterized the early period of behaviorism has increasingly given way to a sense of curiosity about nonbehavioral approaches to understanding language. There are two reasons for the calm that now follows the storm. First, it has become obvious

Keywords

Autistic Child Behavioral Approach Apply Behavior Analysis Speech Pathologist Language Intervention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1973). The development of infant-mother attachment. In B. M. Caldwell and H. N. Ricciuti (Eds.), Review of child development (Vol. 3 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baer, D. M. (1981). How to plan for generalization. Lawrence, KS: H and H Enterprises.Google Scholar
  3. Bates, E. (1976). Language and context: The acquisition of pragmatics. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, L., Nietupski, J., & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (1976). The criterion of ultimate functioning. In M. A. Thomas (Eds.), Hey don’t forget about me! (pp. 2–15 ). Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.Google Scholar
  5. Bruner,J. (1979). Learning how to do things with words. In D. Aaronson and R. W. Rieber (Eds.), Psycholinguistic research (pp. 265–284). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  6. Cairns, R. B. (1979). Social development: The origins and plasticity of interchanges. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  7. Carr, E. G. (1977). The motivation of self-injurious behavior: A review of some hypotheses. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 800–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carr, E. G. (1980). Generalization of treatment effects following educational intervention with autistic children and youth. In B. Wilcox & A. Thompson (Eds.), Critical issues in educating autistic children and youth. (pp. 118–134 ). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education.Google Scholar
  9. Carr, E. G. (1982a). Some relationships between sign language acquisition and perceptual dysfunction in autistic children. In R. N. Malatesha & L. C. Hartlage (Eds.), Neuropsychology and cognition: Vol. 2 (pp. 364–371 ). The Hague, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Carr, E. G. (1982b). Sign language acquisition: Clinical and theoretical aspects. In R. L. Koegel, A. Rincover, & A. L. Egel (Eds.), Educating and understanding autistic children. (pp. 142–157 ). San Diego: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  11. Carr, E. G. (1982c). How to teach sign language to developmentally disabled children Lawrence, KS: H and H Enterprises.Google Scholar
  12. Carr, E. G. (1982d). Analysis and remediation of severe behavior problems. In D. Park (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1981 International Conference on Autism (pp. 313–317 ). Washington, DC: The National Society for Children and Adults with Autism.Google Scholar
  13. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. ( 1983, August). The application of pragmatics to conceptualization and treatment of severe behavior problems in children. Invited address presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  14. Carr, E. G., & Kologinsky, E. (1983). Acquisition of sign language by autistic children. II. Spon- taneity and generalization effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 297–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carr, E. G., & Lovaas, O. I. (1982). Contingent electric shock as a treatment for severe behavior problems. In S. Axelrod and J. Apsche (Eds.), Punishment: Its effects on human behavior (pp. 221–245 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  16. Carr, E. G., Schreibman, L., & Lovaas, O. I. (1975). Control of echolalic speech in psychotic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 3, 331–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carr, E. G., Newsom, C. D., & Binkoff, J. A. (1976). Stimulus control of self-destructive behavior in a psychotic child. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 139–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carr, E. G., Newsom, C. D., & Binkoff, J. A. (1980). Escape as a factor in the aggressive behavior of two retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 101–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carr, E. G., Pridal, C., & Dores, P. A. (1984). Speech versus sign comprehension in autistic children: Analysis and prediction. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37, 587–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chomsky, N. (1959). Verbal behavior by B. F. Skinner. Language, 35, 26–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Durand, V. M., & Carr, E. G. (1982, August). Differential reinforcement of communicative behavior. In R. L. Koegel (Chair), Research on clinical intervention with autistic and psychotic children Symposium presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  22. Frisch, S. A., & Schumaker, J. B. (1974). Teaching generalized receptive prepositions in retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 611–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garcia, E. (1974). The training and generalization of a conversational speech form in nonverbal retardates. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 137–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garcia, E. E., & DeHaven, E. D. (1974). Use of operant techniques in the establishment and generalization of language: A review and analysis. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 79, 169–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Goetz, L., Schuler, A. L., & Sailor, W. (1981). Functional competence as a factor in communication instruction. Exceptional Education Quarterly, 2, 51–60.Google Scholar
  26. Griffiths, H., & Craighead, W. E. (1972). Generalization in operant speech therapy for misarticulation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 37, 485–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Guess, D., Sailor, W., & Baer, D. M. (1978). Children with limited language. In R. L. Schiefelbusch (Ed.), Language intervention strategies (pp. 101–143 ). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  28. Halliday, M. A. K. (1975). Learning how to mean: Explorations in the development of language. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  29. Handleman, J. S. (1979). Generalization by autistic-type children of verbal responses across settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 273–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harris, S. L. (1975). Teaching language to nonverbal children-with emphasis on problems of generalization. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 565–580.Google Scholar
  31. Hart, B. (1980). Pragmatics and language development. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical-child psychology (pp. 383–427 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hart, B. (1981). Pragmatics: How language is used. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1, 299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hart, B., & Risky, T. R. (1976). Community-based language training. In T. D. Tjossem (Ed.), Intervention strategies for high risk infants and young children (pp. 187–198 ). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1978). Promoting productive language through incidental teaching. Education and Urban Society, 10, 207–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1980). In vivo language intervention: Unanticipated general effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 13,407–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hart, B. M., & Risley, T. R. (1982). How to use incidental teaching for elaborating language. Lawrence, KS: H and H Enterprises.Google Scholar
  37. Hermelin, B., & O’Connor, N. (1970). Psychological experiments with autistic children. London: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  38. Howlin, P. A. (1981). The effectiveness of operant language training with autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 89–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hupp, S. C., & Mervis, C. B. (1981). Development of generalized concepts by severely handicapped students. The Association for Severely Handicapped Journal, 6, 14–21.Google Scholar
  40. Hupp, S. C., & Mervis, C. B. (1982). Acquisition of basic object categories by severely handicapped children. Child Development, 53, 760–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Koegel, R. L., Russo, D. C., & Rincover, A. (1977). Assessing and training teachers in the generalized use of behavior modification with autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 197–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lovaas, O. I. (1966). A program for the establishment of speech in psychotic children. In J. K. Wing (Ed.), Early childhood autism. (pp. 115–144.) Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  43. Lovaas, O. I. (1977). The autistic child. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  44. Lovaas, O. I. (1981). Teaching developmentally disabled children. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  45. Lovaas, O. I. (1982, August). An overview of the young autism project. In O. I. Lovaas (Chair), Critical factors in successful treatment of young autistic children Symposium presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  46. Lovaas, O. I., & Newsom, C. D. (1976). Behavior modification with psychotic children. In H. Leitenberg (Ed.), Handbook of behavior modification and behavior therapy (pp. 303–360 ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  47. Lovaas, O. I., Freitag, G., Gold, V. J., & Kassorla, I. C. (1965). Experimental studies in childhood schizophrenia: Analysis of self-destructive behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2, 67–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lovaas, O. I., Freitag, G., Kinder, M. I., Rubenstein, B. D., Schaeffer, B., & Simmons, J. Q. (1966). Establishment of social reinforcers in two schizophrenic children on the basis of food. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 4, 109–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lovaas, O. I., Koegel, R., Simmons, J. Q., & Long, J. S. (1973). Some generalization and fellow-up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 131–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lovaas, O. I., Schaeffer, B., & Simmons, J. Q. (1965). Experimental studies in childhood schizophrenia: Building social behavior in autistic children by use of electric shock. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, 99–109.Google Scholar
  51. Lutzker, J. R., & Sherman, J. A. (1974). Producing generative sentence usage by imitation and reinforcement procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7. 447–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nordquist, V. M., Twardosz, S., & McEvoy, M. A. ( 1982, November). A naturalistic approach to the problem of establishing social reinforcers in autistic children. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  53. Remington, B., & Clarke, S. (1983). The acquisition of expressive signing by autistic children: An evaluation of the relative effects of simultaneous communication and sign-alone training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 315–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rogers-Warren, A., & Warren, S. F. (1981). Form and function in language learning and generalization. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1, 389–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rosch. E. (1973). On the internal structure of perceptual and semantic categories. In T. E. Moore (Ed.), Cognitive development and the acquisition of language (pp. 111–144 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Rosch, E. (1975). Universals and cultural specifics in human categorization. In R. Brislin, S. Bochner, & W. Lonner (Eds.), Cross-cultural perspectives on learning (pp. 177–206 ). New York: Halsted Press.Google Scholar
  57. Rosch, E., & Mervis, C. B. (1975). Family resemblances: Studies in the internal structure of categories. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 573–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rutter, M. (1978a). Language disorder and infantile autism. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 85–104 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  59. Rutter, M. (1978b). Diagnosis and definition. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. I - 25 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  60. Schaeffer, B., Kollinzas, G., Musil, A., & McDowell, P. (1977). Spontaneous verbal language for autistic children through signed speech. Sign Language Studies, 17, 287–328.Google Scholar
  61. Schreibman, L., & Carr, E. G. (1978). Elimination of echolalic responding to questions through the training of a generalized verbal response. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 453–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schumaker, J., & Sherman, J. A. (1970). Training generative verb usage by imitation and reinforcement procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3, 273–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Searle, J. R. (1976). A classification of illocutionary acts. Language in Society, 5, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Seibert, J. M., & 011er, D. K. (1981). Linguistic pragmatics and language intervention strategies. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 75–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sloane, H. N., & MacAuley, B. (Eds.). (1968). Operant procedures in remedial speech and language training. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  67. Stevens-Long, J., & Rasmussen, M. (1974). The acquisition of simple and compound sentence structure in an autistic child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 473–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stokes, T. F., Baer, D. M., & Jackson, R. L. (1974). Programming the generalization of a greeting response in four retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 599–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wolf, M. M., Risley, T., Johnston, M., Harris, F., & Allen, E. (1967). Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behavior problems of an autistic child: A follow-up and extension. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 5, 103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wolff, P. H. (1969). The natural history of crying and other vocalizations in early infancy. In B.M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (Vol. IV, pp. 81–109 ). London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  72. Yoder, D. E., & Calculator, S. (1981). Some perspectives on intervention strategies for persons with developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 107–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward G. Carr
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Suffolk Child Development CenterState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations