The Separation of Bacteria by Adsorption onto Ion Exchange Resins: II. Resolution of Binary Mixtures

  • Stacy L. Daniels
  • Lloyd L. Kempe

Abstract

The distribution of microbial cells in a mixed suspension containing several species of microorganisms, as well as dissolved and particulate matter, can be altered in three ways: (a) nonspecific concentration of the cells with no purification, (b) purification of the cells by removal of the dissolved or suspended contaminants with no concentration, and (c) resolution of the mixed cell suspension into its component species. All three of these processes may be operating separately or simultaneously depending upon the type of separation technique applied. Cells in a suspension can be concentrated by general techniques such as filtration, sedimentation, and drying (9), and by the more specific techniques of chemical flocculation (23) and microflotation (29). Dialysis (11) and ion exchange (28) have been principally applied to the purification of suspensions of their contaminants or undesired byproducts rather than of the cells themselves.

Keywords

Binary Mixture Anion Exchange Exchange Resin Pure Component Selective Adsorption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Adamov, A.k., Selective adsorption as a method for the rapid removal of saprophytic organisms from mixed suspensions with pathogenic organisms, Microbiology (USSR) (Eng. trans.) 30(12), Part 2, 5–10 (1959).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albertsson, P.A., and Baird, G.D., Counter-current distribution of cells, Exp. Cell. Res. 28, 296–322 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barr, M., Adsorption studies on clays. II. The adsorption of bacteria by activated attapulgite, halloysite, and kaolin, J. Amer. Pharm. Ass. 46, 490–492 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bengtsson, S., Philipson, L., Persson, H., and Laurent, T.C., The basis for the interaction between attenuated poliovirus and polyions, Virology 24, 617–625 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Charlwood, P.A., Density-gradient separations in the ultracentrifuge, Brit. Med. Bull. 22 (2), 121–126 (1966).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Curtain, C.C., The adsorption of influenza virus by haemagglutintation inhibitors coupled to powdered cellulose, Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 35, 255–263 (1954).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Daniels, S.L., and Kempe, L.L., The separation of bacteria by adsorption onto ion exchange resins, in “Bioengineering and Food Processing,” M.R. Sfat, Ed., Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Ser. 62(65), in press.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eisenberg, P., (The specific adsorption of bacteria), Centr. Bakteriol. Abstr. I. Orig. 81 (1/2), 72–104 (1918).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Freeman, R.R., Separation of cells from fluids, Biotech. Bioeng. 6, 87–125 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Friedberger, E., (A new method (capillary-rise method) for the separa- tion of Typhus and Coli including general investigations of the capillary rising ability of bacteria in filter paper), Muenchener Med. Wochensch. 66 (48), 1372–1374 (1919).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gerhardt, P., and Gallup, D.M., Dialysis flask for concentrated culture of microorganisms, J. Bacteriol. 86, 919–929 (1963).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Greenstreet, J.E.S., and Norris, K.P., The existence of differences between the infra-red absorption spectra of bacteria, Spectrochim. Acta 9, 177–197 (1957).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gunnison, J.B., and Marshall, M.S., Adsorption of bacteria by inert particulate reagents, J. Bacteriol. 33, 401–409 (1937).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harden, V.P., and Harris, J.O., The isoelectric point of bacterial cells, J. Bacteriol. 65, 198–202 (1955).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Helmstetter, C.E., and Cummings, D.J., Bacterial synchronization by selection of cells at division, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 50, 767–774 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Henis, Y., Gould, J.R., and Alexander, M., Detection and identification of bacteria by gas chromatography, Appl. Microbiol. 14 (4), 513–524 (1966).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Knoll, H., and Tresselt, D., (Isolation of microbes by magnetism), Naturwissenschaften 52 (4), 84 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kolin, A., Isoelectric spectra and mobility spectra: a new approach to electrophoretic separation, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 41 (3), 101–110 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kuhn, P., and Heck, H., (Adsorption process for the concentration of Typhus bacilli), Med. Klin. 12 (6), 152–153 (1916).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kunin, R., and Meyers, R.J., “Ion Exchange Resins,” 1st Ed., John Wiley, New York, 1947, p 134.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kurozumi, T., Itoh, M., and Shibata, K., Chromatographic separation of different species of cells with ion exchange resin, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 109, 241–247 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Michaelis, L., (The concentration of Typhus bacilli by selective adsorption), Berliner Klin. Wochensch. 55 (30), 710–713 (1918).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nakamura, H., Chemical separation methods for common microbes, J. Biochem. Microbiol. Technol. 3, 393–403 (1961).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Noll, H., and Youngner, J.S., Virus-lipid interactions. II. The mechanism of adsorption of lipophilic viruses to water-insoluble polar lipids, Virology 8, 319–343 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Novogrudskii, D.M., (Studies on the ability of soils to adsorb bacteria. II. Adsorption capacity of soils in respect to various microorganisms and its dependence on the pH of the medium), Mikrobiol. (USSR) 5, 623–643 (1936).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Puck, T.T., and Sagik, B., Virus and cell interaction with ion exchangers, J. Exp. Med. 97, 807–820 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Putter, E., (Investigations on the capillary rising ability of bacteria in filter paper), Arch. Hyg. 89, 71–100 (1920).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rotman, B., Uses of ion exchange resins in microbiology, Bacteriol. Rev. 24, 251–260 (1960).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rubin, A.J., Cassai, E.A., Henderson, 0., J.hnson, J.D., and Lamb, J.C., Microflotation: new low gas-flow rate, foam-separation technique for bacteria and algae, Biotech. Bioeng. 8, 135–151 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Salton, M.R.J., “The Bacterial Cell Wall,” Chapter 7: Cell-wall antigens and bacteriophage receptors, Elsevier, New York, 1964, pp 169–187.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schwartz, E., and Mayer, J., (Investigation in the isolation of Mycobacteria the by means of ion exchangers), Zentralbi. Bakteriol. Abstr. I. Orig. 189, 485–495 (1963).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zvyagintsev, D.G., Some regularities of adsorption of microorganisms on ion exchange resins, Microbiology (USSR) (Eng. trans.) 31(2), 275–277 (1962).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stacy L. Daniels
    • 1
  • Lloyd L. Kempe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Metallurgical EngineeringThe University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations