Social Attachment, Brain Function, Aggression and Violence

  • Gary W. Kraemer
Part of the Nato ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 292)

Abstract

In primates intraspecies aggression can be viewed as a purposeful social behavior. Many species of nonhuman primates establish relatively stable social groups. Intragroup aggressive encounters generally occur when the intragroup dominance hierarchy is not stable, and such encounters more often than not have the effect of restoring stability. Hence, aggression is usually both socially regulated and regulatory as far as intragroup and interindividual interactions are concerned. “Violence” can be defined as unregulated aggression, and it is lack of regulation that distinguishes violence as being disruptive and anti-social. One way to address and understand the causes of violence is to investigate the mechanisms by which social behavior per se usually comes to be regulated. “Attachment” has been traditionally viewed as being the process by which the infant bonds to a caregiver and thereafter develops and maintains affiliative intraspecies relationships. An implication of this view is that social behavior is ultimately both caused and regulated by guided internal motivations to develop affiliative social relationships. Investigations of the psychobiology of attachment mechanisms indicate, however, that the neurobiological development of the primate infant is considerably more plastic and less internally guided than previously thought. While past theories suggested that species specific .neurobiological mechanisms develop autonomously and enable the infant to engage in regulated social interactions, the more current view is that neurobiological systems that regulate behavior develop their usual mature stature as a result of experiencing affiliative interactions. Disruption of usual affiliative attachments produces what amounts to neurobiological dysregulation. This translates to failure to regulate usual social behaviors, and one result of this may be violence.

Keywords

Rhesus Monkey Biogenic Amine Nonhuman Primate Violent Behavior Social Stimulus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, C. O., & Mason, W. A. (1978). Competitive social strategies in groups of deprived and experienced rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology, 11, 289–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanchard, R. J., & Blanchard, D. C. (1977). Aggressive behavior in the rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1, 197–224.Google Scholar
  3. Bowlby, J. (1988). A Secure Base. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, G. L., Goodwin, F. K., Ballenger, J. C., Goyer, P. F., & Major, L. F. (1979). Aggression in humans correlates with cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites. Psychiat1y Research, 1, 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buikhuisen, W. (1988). Chronic juvenile delinquency: A theory. In W. Buickhuisen, & S. A. Mednick (Ed.). Explaining Criminal Behavior (pp. 27–50). Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
  6. Chance, M. R. A. (1956). Social structure of a colony of Macaca mullata. British Journal of Animal Behaviour, 4, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clarke, A. S. (1993). Social rearing effects on HPA axis activity over early development and in response to stress in young rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology, 26, 433–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clarke, A. S., Wittwer, D. J., Abbott, D. H., & Schneider, M. L. (1994). Long-term effects of prenatal stress on HPA axis activity in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology, 27, 257–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coccaro, E. F. (1992). Impulsive aggression and central serotonergic system function in humans: An example of a dimensional brain-behavior relationship. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7(1), 3–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collias, N. E. (1944). Aggressive behavior among vertebrate animals. Physiological Zoology, 17(I), 83–123.Google Scholar
  11. De Waal, F. B. M. (1977). The organization of agnonistic relations within two groups of Java-monkeys (Maccaca fascicularis). Zeitshcrift fur Tierpsychologie, 44, 225–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Delgado, J. M. R. (1980). Neuronal constelations in aggressive behavior. In I. Valzelli, & I. Morgese (Ed.), Aggression and Violence: A psychobiological and clinical approach (pp. 82–97). St. Vincent: Edizione.Google Scholar
  13. DeVore, I. (1965). Male dominance and mating behavior in baboons. In F. Beach (Ed.), Sex and Behavior New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1961). The fighting behavior of animals. Scientific American, 205, 470–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eisenberg, L. (1995). The social construction of the human brain. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(II), 1563–1575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Eysenck, H. J. (1977). Crime and Personality (3rd ed.). Albans, England: Paladin.Google Scholar
  17. Ferris, C. F., &amp De Vries, G. J. (in press). Ethological models for examining the neurobiology of aggressive and affiliative disorders. InGoogle Scholar
  18. Gartlan, J. S. (1968). Structure and function of primate society. Folia Primatologica, 8, 89–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greenough, W. T., Black, J. E., & Wallace, C. S. (1987). Experience and brain development. Child Development, 58, 539–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hall, K. R. L., & DeVore, I. (1965). Baboon social behavior. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes (pp. 53–110). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  21. Harlow, H. F. (1969). The age-mate or peer affectional system. In E. B. Foss (Ed.), Advances in the Study of Behavior (pp. 333–383). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Harlow, H. F., Harlow, M. K., & Suomi, S. J. (1971). From thought to therapy: Lessons from a primate laboratory. American Scientist, 59, 538–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hebb, D. O. (1949). The Organization of Behavior. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  24. Hegstrand, L., & Eichelman, B. (1983). Increased shock induced fighting and supersensitive beta-adrenergic receptors. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 19, 313–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Higley, J. D., Linnoila, M., & Suomi, S. J. (1994). Ethological contributions: Experiential and genetic contributions to the expression and inhibition of aggression in primates. In M. Hersen, R. T. Ammerman, & L. Sission (Ed.), Handbook of aggressive and destructive behavior in psychiatric patients (pp. 17–32). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Higley, J. D., Mehlman, P. T., Taub, D. M., Higley, S. B., Suomi, S. J., Linnoila, M., & Vickers, J. H. (1992). Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine and adrenal correlates of aggression in free ranging rhesus monkeys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 436–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Higley, J.D., Suomi, S. J., & Linnoila, M. (1991). CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations vary according to age, rearing, and sex, and are influenced by the stressor of social separation in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology, 103, 551–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jackson, J. H. (1958). Selected Writings (edited by J. Taylor), New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  29. Johnson, H. C. (1996). Violence and biology: A review of the literature. Journal of Contemporary Human Sciences, 77(I), 3–18.Google Scholar
  30. Kleiber, D. A., & Kelly, J. R. (1980). Leisure, socialization, and the life cycle. In J. E. Isothila (Ed.), Social Psychological Perspectives on Leisure and Recreation New York: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  31. Kraemer, G., & Bachevalier, J. (in press). Cognitive changes associated with persisting behavioral effects of early psychosocial stress in rhesus monkeys: The view from psychobiology. In B. Dohrenwend (Ed.). Adversity, Stress, and Psychopathology Washington: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  32. Kraemer, G. W. (1982). Neurochemical correlates of stress and depression: Depletion or disorganization? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kraemer, G. W. (1986). Causes of changes in brain noradrenaline systems and later effects on responses to social stressors in rhesus monkeys: The Cascade Hypothesis. In Antidepressants and Receptor Function (CIBA Foundation Symposium 123) (pp. 216–233). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Kraemer, G. W. (1992a). Psychobiological Attachment Theory (PAT) and psychopathology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15(3), 525–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kraemer, G. W. (1992b). A psychobiological theory of attachment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15(3), 493–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kraemer, G. W. (1995). The significance of social attachment in primate infants: The caregiver-infant relationship and volition. In C. R. Pryce, R. D. Martin, & D. Skuse (Ed.), Motherhood in Human and Nonhuman Primates: Biological and Social Determinants (pp. 152–161). Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  37. Kraemer, G. W. (in press). The psychobiology of early attachment in nonhuman primates: Clinical Implications. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  38. Kraemer, G. W., & Clarke, A. S. (1990). The behavioral neurobiology of self-injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys. Progress in Neuro-Psychnpharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 14 (suppl), 141–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kraemer, G. W., & Clarke, A. S. (1996). Social attachment, brain function, and Aggression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 794, 121–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Lake, C. R., & McKinney, W. T. (1983). Amphetamine challenge: Effects in previously isolated monkeys and implications for animal models of schizophrenia. In K. Miczek (Ed.), Ethopharmacolgy: Primate Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders (pp. 199–218). New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  41. Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Lake, C. R., & McKinney, W. T. (1984). Hypersensitivity to d-amphetamine several years after early social deprivation in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology, 82, 266–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Schmidt, D. E., & McKinney, W. T. (1989). A longitudinal study of the effects of different rearing environments on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and biogenic amine metabolites in rhesus monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2, 175–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kraemer, G. W., & McKinney, W. T. (1979). Interactions of pharmacological agents which alter biogenic amine metabolism and depression: An analysis of contributing factors within a primate model of depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 1, 33–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kraemer, G. W., & McKinney, W. T. (1988). Animal models in psychiatry: Contributions of research on synaptic mechanisms. In A. K. Sen, & T. Lee (Ed.), Receptors and Ligands in Psychiatry and Neurology (pp. 459–483). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Kummer, H. (1957). Soziales verhalten einer matelpavian-gruppe. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie, 33, 1–91.Google Scholar
  46. Linnoila, V. M., & Virkkunen, M. (1992). Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 53(Supplement), 46–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lorenz, K. (1966). On Aggression. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  48. Mason, W. A. (1985). Experiential influences on the development of expressive behaviors in rhesus monkeys. In G. Zivin (Ed.). The Development of Expressive Behavior: Biology Environment Interactions (pp. 117–152). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McDougall, W. (1908). Social Psychology: An introduction. London: Methuen & Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mednick, S. A. (1977). A biosocial theory of the learning of law abiding behavior. In S. A. Mednick, & K. O. Christiansen (Ed.), Biosocial Bases of Criminal Behavior (pp. 1–7). New York: Gardner.Google Scholar
  51. Miczek, K. A. (1979). A new test for aggression in rats without aversive stimulation: Differential effects of d-amphetamine and cocaine. Psychopharmacology, 60, 253–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Miczek, K. A., Weerts, E., Haney, M., & Tidley, J. (1994). Neurobiological mechanisms controlling aggression: Preclinical developments for pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 18, 97–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Miczek, K. A., Weerts, E. M., Vivian, J. A., & Barros, H. M. (1995). Aggression, anxiety and vocalizations in animals: GABAa and 5-HT anxiolytics. Psychopharmacology, 121, 38–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychology Review, 100, 674–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moyer, K. E. (1968). Kinds of aggression and their physiological basis. Communications in Behavioral Biology, 2 (65–87).Google Scholar
  56. Nowakowski, R. S. (1987). Basic concepts of CNS development. Child Development, 58, 568–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Olivier, B., Mos, J., van Oorschot, R., & Hen, R. (1995). Serotonin receptors and animal models of aggressive behavior. Pharmacopsychiatry, 28(supplement), 80–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Reis, D. (1971). Brain monoamines in aggression and sleep. Clinical Neurosurgery, 18, 471–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Rowell, T. E. (1966). Hierarchy in the organization of a captive baboon group. Animal Behaviour. 14, 430–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sapolsky, R. M. (1990). Stress in the wild. Scientific American, 262, 116–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schildkraut, J. J., & Kety, S. S. (1967). Biogenic amines and emotion. Science, 156, 21–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schjelderup-Ebbe, T. (1931). Die despote im sozialen leben der vogel. Volker-psychologie und Sozialogie, 10(2), 77–140.Google Scholar
  63. Schneider, M. L., & Clarke, A. S. (1993). Prenatal stress has long-term effects on behavioral responses to stress in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology, 26(5), 293–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schneider, M. L., & Coe, C. L. (1993). Repeated social stress during pregnancy impairs neuromotor development of the infant primate. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 14(2), 81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Siever, L. J. (1987). Role of noradrenergic mechanisms in the etiology of the affective disorders. In H. Y. Meltzer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress (pp. 493–504). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  66. Simonds, P. E. (1965). The bonnet macaque in South India. In I. DeVore (Ed.), Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes (pp. 175–196). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  67. Snyder, S. H. (1973). Amphetamine psychosis: A “model” schizophrenia mediated by catecholamines. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 61–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Soubrie, P. (1986). Reconciling the role of central serotonin neurons in human and animal behavior. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 319–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Staub, E. (1996). Cultural-societal roots of violence: The examples of genocidal violence and of contemporary youth violence in the United States. American Psychologist, 51(2), 117–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Storr, A. (1970). Human Aggression. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  71. Suomi, S. J., Harlow, H. F., & Domek, C. J. (1970). Effect of repetitive infant-infant separation of young monkeys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76, 161–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Suomi, S. J., & Ripp, C. (1983). A history of motherless monkey mothering at the University of Wisconsin Primate Laboratory. In M. Reite, & N. Caine (Ed.), Child Abuse: The non-human primate data (pp. 49–78). New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  73. Valenstein, E. S., Cox, V. C., & Kakolewski, J. W. (1969). The hypothalamus and motivated behavior. In J. C. Tapp (Ed.), Reinforcement and Behavior (pp. 242–287). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Valzelli, I. (1981). Aggression and Violence: A biological assay on the distinction. In I. Valzelli, & I. Morgese (Ed.), Aggression and Violence: A Psychobiological and Clinical Approach (pp. 134–156). Milano: Edizioni-Saint Vincent.Google Scholar
  75. Vaizelli, L., & Garattini, S. (1972). Biochemical and behavioral changes induced by isolation in rats. Neuropharmacology, 11, 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Welch, A. S., & Welch, B. L. (1971). Isolation, reactivity and aggression: Evidence for an involvement of brain catecholamines and serotonin. In J. Eleftheriou, & J. P. Scott (Ed.), The physiology of Aggression and Defeat (pp. 91–142). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary W. Kraemer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Kinesiology and Harlow Primate LaboratoryUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations