Oxygen Activation by Fungal and Bacterial Toxins

  • Ingrid Heiser
  • Julia Koehl
  • Erich F. Elstner
Chapter

Abstract

Toxic metabolites produced by pathogenic fungi and bacteria contribute to symptoms development in infested plants or animals and may cause serious diseases (Yoder, 1980; Schäfer, 1994). Fungal phytotoxins are roughly divided into two groups: (a) host-selective toxins are produced only by a few fungal species (e.g. Alternaria, Cochliobolus) and are toxic only to the hosts of these pathogens; they show little or no toxicity to nonsusceptible plants, and (b) non-selective toxins are produced by a number of fungi and bacteria and cause damage not only on the host plant but also on other plant species that are not normally attacked by the pathogen in nature including animal and man if the invaded plants are used as foodstuffs. The mechanisms of toxicity i.e. the modes of action of some non-selective phytotoxins are already known, some mechanisms are still tentative. Besides this, these toxins may either be toxic per se or establish their toxicity via activation of certain host cell-types such as leukocytes. In plants the disease symptoms caused by non-selective phytotoxins are often very similar, mostly visible as chlorotic lesions and/or wilt and often very similar to herbicide effects. At the subcellular level destruction of membranes in toxin treated plants is observed. Mostly a breakdown of lipids together with pigment degradation occurs as symptoms of lipid peroxidation (Elstner and Osswald, 1980; Elstner, 1982) after the oxygen metabolism of the plant was impaired. As a consequence of this reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide (O 2 ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or hydroxyl radicals (·OH) may be formed (Elstner and Osswald, 1994; Heiser et al., 1998c).

Keywords

Oxygen Activation Photosynthetic Electron Transport Fusarium Solani Lethal Toxin Thioctic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingrid Heiser
    • 1
  • Julia Koehl
    • 1
  • Erich F. Elstner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PhytopathologyTechnical University of MunichFreising/WeihenstephanGermany

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