Depositional systems and sequence stratigraphy

  • Andrew D. Miall

Abstract

The concept of depositional episodes and the depositional systems basin-analysis method were developed largely in the Gulf Coast region as a means of analyzing and interpreting the immense thicknesses of sediment there that are so rich in oil and gas. The principles of the depositional system have never been formally stated, although they have been widely used, particularly by geologists at the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology (e.g., W.L. Fisher, L.F. Brown Jr., J.H. McGowen, W.E. Galloway, and D.E. Frazier. See selected references quoted in Section 1.2.2). Other geologists who made notable early contributions in this area include R.J. Weimer, D.A. Busch, J.C. Crowell, J.C. Ferm, H.A. Lowenstam, N.D. Newell, and H.R. Wanless.

Keywords

Continental Slope Sequence Stratigraphy Depositional System Transgressive System Tract Petroleum Geologist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AHR, W.M., 1973: The carbonate ramp—an alternative to the shelf model; Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, v. 23, p. 221–225.Google Scholar
  2. BALLY, A.W., ed., 1987: Atlas of seismic stratigraphy; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology 27, v. 1, 125 p.Google Scholar
  3. BEAUMONT, E.A., 1984: Retrogradational shelf sedimentation: Lower Cretaceous Viking Formation, central Alberta; in R.W. Tillman and C.T. Siemers, eds., Siliciclastic shelf sedimentation; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 34, p. 163–177.Google Scholar
  4. BEHRENSMEYER, A.K., 1987: Miocene fluvial facies and vertebrate taphonomy in northern Pakistan; in F.G. Ethridge, R.M. Flores, and M.D. Harvey, eds., Recent developments in fluvial sedimentology; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 39, p. 169–176.Google Scholar
  5. BEHRENSMEYER, A.K., and TAUXE, L., 1982: Isochronous fluvial systems in Miocene deposits of northern Pakistan; Sedimentology, v. 29, p. 331–352.Google Scholar
  6. BEIN, A., and WEILER, Y., 1976: The Cretaceous Talme Yafe Formation: a contour current shaped sedimentary prism of calcareous detritus at the continental margin of the Arabian Craton; Sedimentology, v. 23, p. 511–532.Google Scholar
  7. BENNETS, K.R.W., and PILKEY, O.H., Jr., 1976: Characteristics of three turbidites, Hispaniola– Caicos Basin; Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 87, p. 1291–1300.Google Scholar
  8. BLENDINGER, W., 1986: Isolated stationary carbonate platforms: the Middle Triassic (Ladinian) of the Marmolada area, Dolomites, Italy; Sedimentology, v. 33, p. 159–184.Google Scholar
  9. BLUCK, B.J., 1978: Sedimentation in a late orogenic basin: the Old Red Sandstone of the Midland Valley of Scotland; in D.R. Bowes and B.E. Leake, eds., Crustal Evolution in northwestern Britain and adjacent regions; Geological Journal Special Issue 10, p. 249–278.Google Scholar
  10. BORCHERT, H., and MUIR, R.O., 1964: Salt deposits. The origin, metamorphism and deformation of evaporites; Van Norstrand, London, 338 D.Google Scholar
  11. BOUMA, A., 1979: Continental slopes; in L.J. Doyle and O.H. Pillkey Jr., eds., Geology of continental slopes; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 27, p. 1–16.Google Scholar
  12. BOUMA, A.H., COLEMAN, J.M., and Dsdp Leg 96 scientists, 1985a: Mississippi Fan: Leg 96 Program and Principal results; in A.H. Bouma, W.R. Normark, and N. E. Barnes, eds., Submarine fans and related turbidite systems; Springer—Verlag Inc., New York, p. 247–252.Google Scholar
  13. BOUMA, A.H., NORMARK, W.E., and BARNES, N.E., eds., 1985b: Submarine fans and related turbidite systems; Springer—Verlag Inc., New York, 351 p.Google Scholar
  14. BOYD, R., SUTER, J., and PENLAND, S., 1988: Implications of modern sedimentary environments for sequence stratigraphy; in D.P. James and D.A. Leckie, eds., Sequences, stratigraphy, sedimentology: surface and subsurface; Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 15, p. 33–36.Google Scholar
  15. BRENNER, R.L., 1978: Sussex Sandstone of Wyoming—example of Cretaceous offshore sedimentation; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 62, p. 181–200.Google Scholar
  16. BRENNER, R.L., and DAVIES, D.K., 1973: Storm—generated coquinoid sandstone: genesis of high energy marine sediments from the Upper Jurassic of Wyoming and Montana; Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 84, p. 1685–1698.Google Scholar
  17. BRENNER, R.L., and DAVIES, D.K., 1974: Oxfordian sedimentation in Western Interior United States; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 58, p. 407–428.Google Scholar
  18. BRENNER, R.L., SWIFT, D.J.P., and GAYNOR, G.C., 1985: Re—evaluation of coquinoid sandstone depositional model, Upper Jurassic of central Wyoming and south—central Montana; Sedimentology, v. 32, p. 363–372.Google Scholar
  19. BRIDGES, P.H., 1982: Ancient offshore tidal sands; in A.H. Stride, ed., Offshore tidal sands; Chapman and Hall, London, p. 172–192.Google Scholar
  20. BROOKFIELD, ME., and AHLBRANDT, T.S., eds., 1983: Eolian sediments and processes; Developments in sedimentology 38; Elsevier Scientific Publications, Amsterdam, 660 p.Google Scholar
  21. BROOKFIELD, M.E., and BRETT, C.E., 1988: Paleoenvironments of the mid—Ordovician (Upper Caradocian) Trenton Limestones of southern Ontario, Canada: storm sedimentation on a shoal—basin shelf model; Sedimentary Geology, v. 57, p. 75–106.Google Scholar
  22. BROWN, L.F., Jr., and FISHER, W.L., 1977: Seismic—stratigraphic interpretation of depositional systems: examples from Brazilian rift and pull—apart basins; in C.E. Payton, ed., Seismic stratigraphy—applications to hydrocarbon exploration; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, p. 213–248.Google Scholar
  23. BRUNSTROM, R.G.W., and WALMSLEY, P.J., 1969: Permian evaporites in the North Sea Basin; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 53, p. 870–883.Google Scholar
  24. BUBB, J.N., and HATLELID, W.G., 1977: Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, Part ten: Seismic recognition of carbonate buildups; in C.E. Payton, ed., Seismic stratigraphy—applications to hydrocarbon exploration; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, p. 185–204.Google Scholar
  25. BUFFLER, R.T., WATKINS, J.S., and DILLON, W.P., 1979: Geology of the offshore southeast Georgia Embayment, U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin, based on multichannel seismic reflection profiles; in J.S. Watkins, L. Montadert, and P.W. Dickerson, eds., Geological and geophysical investigations of continental margins; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 29, p. 11–26.Google Scholar
  26. CANT, DJ., and HEIN, F.J., 1986: Depositional sequences in ancient shelf sediments: some contrasts in style; in R.J. Knight and J.R. Maclean, eds., Shelfsands and sandstones; Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 11, p. 303–312.Google Scholar
  27. CARMICHAEL, S.M.M., 1988: Linear estuarine conglomerate bodies formed during a mid—Albian marine transgression; “Upper Gates” Formation, Rocky Mountain Foothils of northeastern British Columbia; in D.P. James and D.A. Leckie, eds., Sequences, stratigraphy, sedimentology: surface and subsurface; Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 15, p. 49–62.Google Scholar
  28. CASEY, J.M., 1980: Depositional systems and basin evaluation of the Late Paleozoic Taos Trough, northern New Mexico; Texas Petroleum Research Committee, Austin, Texas, Report Ut 80–1.Google Scholar
  29. CLARK, T.H., and Stearn, C.W., 1968: The geological evolution of North America, 2nd ed., Ronald Press, New York, 570 p.Google Scholar
  30. COLEMAN, J.M., and WRIGHT, L.D., 1975: Modern river deltas: variability of processes and sand bodies; in M.L. Broussard, ed., Deltas, models for exploration; Houston Geological Society, p. 99—149.Google Scholar
  31. COLLETTE, B.J., EWING, J.I., LAGAAY, R.A., and TRUCHAN, M., 1969: Sediment distribution in the oceans: the Atlantic between 10° and 19°N; Marine Geology, v. 7, p. 279–345.Google Scholar
  32. COLLINSON, J.D., 1986: Submarine ramp facies model for delta—fed, sand—rich turbidite systems: discussion; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, p. 1742–1743.Google Scholar
  33. COOK, HE., and ENOS, P., eds., 1977: Deep—water carbonate environments; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 25, 336 p.Google Scholar
  34. CROSS, T.A., ed., 1990: Quantitative dynamic stratigraphy; Prentice—Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 625 p.Google Scholar
  35. CURRAY, J.R., 1965: Late Quaternary history, continental shelves of the United States; in H.E. Wright and D.G. Frey, eds., The Quaternary of the United States; Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, D. 723–735.Google Scholar
  36. CURRAY, J.R., and MOORE, D.G., 1974: Sedimentary and tectonic processes in the Bengal deepsea fan and geosyncline; in C.A. Burk and C.L. Drake, eds., The geology of continental margins; Springer—Verlag, New York, p. 617–627.Google Scholar
  37. CURTIS, D.M., 1970: Miocene deltaic sedimentation, Louisiana Gulf Coast; in J.P. Morgan, ed., Deltaic sedimentation modern and ancient; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 15, p. 293–308.Google Scholar
  38. DEMAREST, J.M., II, and KRAFT, J.C., 1987: Stratigraphic record of Quaternary sea levels: implications for more ancient strata; in D. Nummedal, O.H. Pilkey, and J.D. Howard, eds., Sea—level fluctuation and coastal evolution; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 41, p. 223–239.Google Scholar
  39. DIETZ, R.S., and WOODHOUSE, M., 1988: Mediterranean theory may be all wet; Geotimes, May 1988, p. 4.Google Scholar
  40. DONOVAN, R.N., 1975: Devonian lacustrine limestones at the margin of the Orcadian Basin, Scotland; Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 131, p. 489–510.Google Scholar
  41. DOYLE, L.J., and ROBERTS, H.H., eds., 1988: Carbonate—clastic transitions; Developments in sedimentology 42; Elsevier, Amsterdam, 304 p.Google Scholar
  42. DOYLE, L.J., PILKEY, O.H., Jr., and WOO, C.C., 1979: Sedimentation on the eastern United States continental slope; in L.J. Doyle and O.H. Pilkey, Jr., eds., Geology of continental slopes, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 27, p. 119–130.Google Scholar
  43. DUKE, W.L., 1985: Hummocky cross—stratification, tropical hurricanes, and intense winter storms; Sedimentology, v. 32, p. 167–194.Google Scholar
  44. DUKE, W.L., 1985: The paleogeography of Paleozoic and Mesozoic storm depositional systems: discussion; Journal of Geology, v. 93, p. 88–90.Google Scholar
  45. EBERLI, G.P., and GINSBURG, R.N., 1987: Segmentation and coalescence of Cenozoic carbonate platforms, northwestern Great Bahama Bank; Geology, v. 15, p. 75–79.Google Scholar
  46. EDWARDS, M.B., 1976: Growth faults in Upper Triassic deltaic sediments, Svalbard; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 60, p. 341–355.Google Scholar
  47. EMBLEY, R.W., 1976: New evidence for occurrence of debris flow deposits in the deep sea; Geology, v. 4, p. 371–374.Google Scholar
  48. EMBRY, A., and KLOVAN, J.E., 1976: The Middle—Upper Devonian clastic wedge of the Franklinian Geosyncline; Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 24, p. 485–639.Google Scholar
  49. EVANS, W.E., 1970: Imbricate linear sand bodies of Viking Formation in Dodsland—Hoosier area of southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 54, p. 469–486.Google Scholar
  50. FISHER, W.L., and MCGOWEN, J.H., 1967: Depositional systems in the Wilcox Group of Texas and their relationship to occurrence of oil and gas; Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 17, p. 105–125.Google Scholar
  51. FRAZIER, D.E., 1967: Recent deltaic deposits of the Mississippi Delta: their development and chronology; Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 17, p. 287–315.Google Scholar
  52. FRAZIER, D.E., 1974: Depositional episodes: their relationship to the Quaternary stratigraphic framework in the northwestern portion of the Gulf Basin; Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas, Geological Circular 74–1.Google Scholar
  53. FRYBERGER, S.G., ABDULKADER, M.A.S., and CLISHAM, T.J., 1983: Eolian dune, interdune, sand sheet, and siliciclastic sabkha sediments of an offshore prograding sand sea, Dharan area, Saudi Arabia; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 67, p. 280–312.Google Scholar
  54. FULLER, J.G.C.M., and PORTER, J.W., 1969: Evaporite formations with petroleum reservoirs in Devonian and Mississippian of Alberta, Saskatchewan and North Dakota; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 53, p. 909–926.Google Scholar
  55. GALLOWAY, W.E., 1975: Process framework for describing the morphologic and stratigraphic evolution of deltaic depositional systems; in M.L. Broussard, ed., Deltas, models for exploration; Houston Geological Society, p. 87–98.Google Scholar
  56. GALLOWAY, W.E., 1981: Depositional architecture of Cenozoic Gulf Coastal Plain fluvial systems; in F.G. Ethridge and R.M. Flores, ed., Recent and ancient nonmarine depositional environments: models for exploration; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 31, p. 127–156.Google Scholar
  57. GALLOWAY, W.E., and Brown, L.F., Jr., 1973: Depositional systems and shelf—slope relations on cratonic basin margin, uppermost Pennsylvanian of north—central Texas; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 57, p. 1185–1218.Google Scholar
  58. GARY, M., MCAFEE, R., Jr., and WOLF, C.L., 1972: Glossary of geology; American Geological Institute, 805 p.Google Scholar
  59. GLENNIE, K.W., 1970: Desert sedimentary environments; Developments in Sedimentology 14; Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  60. GLENNIE, K.W., 1972: Permian Rotliegendes of northwest Europe interpreted in the light of modern desert sedimentation studies; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 56, p. 1048–1071.Google Scholar
  61. GLENNIE, K.W., 1983: Lower Permian Rotliegend desert sedimentation in the North Sea area; in M.E. Brookfield and T.S. Ahlbrandt, eds., Eolian sediments and processes; Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 521–541.Google Scholar
  62. GLENNIE, K.W., 1987: Desert sdimentary environments, present and past—a summary; Sedimentary Geology, v. 50, p. 135–165.Google Scholar
  63. GOODWIN, P.W., and ANDERSON, E.J., 1985: Punctuated aggradational cycles: a general hypothesis of episodic stratigraphic accumulation; Journal of Geology, v. 93, p. 515–533.Google Scholar
  64. GOODWIN, P.W., ANDERSON, E.J., GOODMAN, W.M., and SARAKA, L.J., 1986: Punctuated aggradational cycles: implications for stratigraphic analysis; Paleoceanography, v. 1, p. 417–429.Google Scholar
  65. GROTZINGER, J.P., 1986: Cyclicity and paleoenvironmental dynamics, Rocknest platform, northwest Canada; Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 97, p. 1208–1231.Google Scholar
  66. HANDFORD, C.R., and DUTTON, S.P., 1980: Pennsylvanian–Early Permian depositional systems and shelf—margin evolution, Palo Duro Basin, Texas; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 64, p. 88–106.Google Scholar
  67. HARRIS, P.T., 1988: Large—scale bedforms as indicators of mutually evasive sand transport and the sequential infilling of wide—mouthed estuaries; Sedimentary Geology, v. 57, p. 273–298.Google Scholar
  68. HAYES, M.O., 1967: Hurricanes as geologic agents: case studies of Hurricanes Carla 1961, and Cindy 1963; Texas Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations 61, 54 p.Google Scholar
  69. HEEZEN, B.C., and HOLLISTER, C.D., 1971: The face of the deep; Oxford University Press, New York, 659 p.Google Scholar
  70. HELLER, P.L., and DICKINSON, W.R., 1985: Submarine ramp facies model for delta—fed, sand—rich turbidite systems; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 69, p. 960–976.Google Scholar
  71. HERITIER, F.E., LOSSEL, P., and WATHNE, E., 1980: Frigg Field—large submarine fan trap in Lower Eocene rocks of the Viking Graben, North Sea; in M.T. Halbouty, ed., Giant oil and gas fields of the decade 1968–1978; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 30 p. 59–80.Google Scholar
  72. HESSE, R., 1974: Long—distance continuity of turbidites: possible evidence for an Early Cretaceous trench—abyssal plain in the east Alps; Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 85, p. 859–870.Google Scholar
  73. HESSE, R., 1975: Turbiditic and non turbiditic mudstone of Cretaceous flysch sections of the East Alps and other basins; Sedimentology, v. 22, p. 387–416.Google Scholar
  74. HOUBOLT, J.J.H.C., 1968: Recent sediments in the southern bight of the North Sea; Geologie en Mijnbouw, v. 47, p. 245–273.Google Scholar
  75. HSÜ, K.J., CITA, M.B., and RYAN, W.B.F., 1973: The origin of the Mediterranean evaporites; in W.B.F. Ryan, K.J. Hs et al., Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project; U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, v. 13, p. 1203–1231.Google Scholar
  76. JAMES, D.P., and LECKIE, D.A., eds., 1988: Sequences, stratigraphy, sedimentology: surface and subsurface; Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 15, 586 p.Google Scholar
  77. JENKYNS, H.C., 1986: Pelagic environments, in H.G. Reading, ed., Sedimentary environments and facies, 2nd ed.; Blackwell Scientific Publications, p. 343–397.Google Scholar
  78. KENDALL, A.C., 1984: Evaporites, in R.G. Walker, ed., Facies models, 2nd ed.; Geoscience Canada Reprint Series 1, p. 259–296.Google Scholar
  79. KENDALL, G.St.C., and SCHLAGER, W., 1981: Carbonates and relative changes in sea level; Marine Geology, v. 44, p. 181–212.Google Scholar
  80. KING, P.B., 1948: Geology of the southern Guadalupe Mountains, Texas; U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 215.Google Scholar
  81. KOCUREK, G., 1981: Erg reconstruction: the Entrada Sandstone (Jurassic) of northern Utah and Colorado; Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 36, p. 125–153.Google Scholar
  82. KOCUREK, G., ed., 1988a: Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic eolian deposits of the Western Interior of the United States; Sedimentary Geology, v. 56, 413 p. (special issue).Google Scholar
  83. KOCUREK, G., 1988b: First—order and super bounding surfaces in eolian sequences—bounding surfaces revisited; Sedimentary Geology, v. 56, p. 193–206.Google Scholar
  84. KOLB, C.R., and Van LOPIK, J.R., 1966: Depositional environments of the Mississippi River deltaic plain—southeastern Louisiana; in M. E. Shirley, ed., Deltas, Houston Geological Society, p. 17–62.Google Scholar
  85. KOLLA, V., and COUMES, F., 1987: Morphology, internal structure, seismic stratigraphy, and sedimentation of Indus Fan; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 71, p. 650–677.Google Scholar
  86. KREBS, W., and MOUNTJOY, E.W., 1972: Comparison of central European and Western Canadian Devonian reef complexes; 24th International Geological Congress, Montreal, Sect. 6, p. 294–309.Google Scholar
  87. KURTZ, D.D., and ANDERSON, J.B., 1979: Recognition and sedimentologic description of recent debris flow deposits from the Ross and Weddel Seas, Antarctica; Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 49, p. 1159–1170.Google Scholar
  88. LINDSETH, R.O., and BERALDO, V.L., 1985: A Late Cretaceous submarine canyon in Brazil; in O.R. Berg and D.G. Woolverton, eds., Seismic stratigraphy II; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 39, p. 169–180.Google Scholar
  89. LOOPE, D.B., 1985: Episodic deposition and preservation of eolian sands: a Late Paleozoic example from southeastern Utah; Geology, v.13, p. 73–76.Google Scholar
  90. MALDONADO, A., and STANLEY, D.J., 1979: Depositional patterns and late Quaternary evolution of two Mediterranean submarine fans: a comparison; Marine Geology v. 31, p. 215–250.Google Scholar
  91. MANLEY, P.L., and FLOOD, R.D., 1988: Cyclic sediment deposition within Amazon deep—sea fan; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 72, p. 912–925.Google Scholar
  92. MCDONALD, D.I.M., 1986: Proximal to distal sedimentological variation in a linear turbidite trough: implications for the fan model; Sedimentology, v. 33, p. 243–260.Google Scholar
  93. MCGOVNEY, J.E., and RADOVICH, B.J., 1985: Seismic stratigraphy and facies of the Frigg Fan complex; in O.R. Berg and D.G. Woolverton, eds., Seismic stratigraphy II; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 39, p. 139–154.Google Scholar
  94. MCGREGOR, B.A., 1981: Ancestral head of Wilmington Canyon; Geology, v. 9, p. 254–257.Google Scholar
  95. MCKEE, E.D., ed., 1979: A study of global sand seas; U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1052.Google Scholar
  96. MEISSNER, F.F., 1972: Cyclic sedimentation in Middle Permian strata of the Permian basin, West Texas and New Mexico; in J.C. Elam and S. Chuber, eds., Cyclic sedimentation in the Permian Basin, 2nd ed.; West Texas Geological Society, p. 203–232.Google Scholar
  97. MELVIN, J., 1986: Upper Carboniferous sandstones from southwest England: a model for growth in an ancient, delta—fed subsea fan; Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 56, p. 19–34.Google Scholar
  98. MIALL, A.D., 1978: Tectonic setting and syndepositional deformation of molasse and other nonmarine—paralic sedimentary bass; Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 15, p. 1613–1632.Google Scholar
  99. MIALL, A.D., 1981: Alluvial sedimentary basins: tectonic setting and basin architecture; in A.D. Miall, ed., Sedimentation and tectonics in alluvial basins; Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 23, p. 1–33.Google Scholar
  100. MIALL, A.D., 1988: Facies architecture in clastic sedimentary basins; in K.L. Kleinspehn and C. Paola, eds., New perspectives in basin analysis; Springer—Verlag Inc., New York, p. 67–81.Google Scholar
  101. MITCHUM, R.M., Jr., 1977: Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, Part eleven: Glossary of terms used in seismic stratigraphy; in C.E. Payton, ed., Seismic stratigraphy—applications to hydrocarbon exploration; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, p. 205–212.Google Scholar
  102. MITCHUM, R.M., Jr., 1985: Seismic stratigraphic expression of submarine fans; in O.R. Berg and D.G. Woolverton, eds., Seismic stratigraphy II; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 39, p. 117–136.Google Scholar
  103. MITCHUM, R.M., Jr., VAIL, P.R., and SANGREE, J.B., 1977: Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, Part six: Stratigraphic interpretation of seismic reflection patterns in depositional sequences; in C.E. Payton, ed., Seismic stratigraphy—applications to hydrocarbon exploration; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, p. 117–133.Google Scholar
  104. MOUNT, J.F., 1984: Mixing of siliciclastic and carbonate sediments in shallow shelf environments; Geology, v. 12, p. 432–435.Google Scholar
  105. MULLINS, H.T., and NEUMANN, A.C., 1979. Deep carbonate bank margin structure and sedimentation in the northern Bahamas; in L.J. Doyle and O.H. Pilkey, Jr., eds., Geology of continental slopes, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 27, p. 165–192.Google Scholar
  106. MUTTI, E., 1985: Turbidite systems and their relations to depositional sequences; in G.G. Zuffa, ed., Provenance of arenites; D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 65–93.Google Scholar
  107. MUTTI, E., and NORMARK, W.R., 1987: Comparing examples of modern and ancient turbidite systems: problems and concepts; in J.K. Leggett and G.G. Zuffa, eds., Marine clastic sedimentology: concepts and case studies; Graham and Trotman, London, p. 1–38.Google Scholar
  108. NEMEC, W., and STEEL, R.J., eds., 1988: Fan deltas: sedimentology and tectonic settings; Blackie, Glasgow, 444 p.Google Scholar
  109. NEWELL, N.D., RIBGY, J.K., FISCHER, A.G., WHITEMAN, A.H., HICKOX, J.E., and BRADLEY, J.S., 1953: The Permian reef complex of the Guadalupe Mountains region, Texas and New Mexico; W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 236 p.Google Scholar
  110. NUMMEDAL, D., 1987: Preface, in D. Nummedal, O.H. Pilkey, and J.D. Howard, eds., Sea—level fluctuation and coastal evolution; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 41, p. iii–iv.Google Scholar
  111. NUMMEDAL, D., and SWIFT, D.J.P., 1987: Transgressive stratigraphy at sequence—bounding unconformities: some principles derived from Holocene and Cretaceous examples; in D. Nummedal, O.H. Pilkey, and J.D. Howard, eds., Sea—level fluctuation and coastal evolution; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 41, p. 241–260.Google Scholar
  112. NUMMEDAL, D., PILKEY, O.H., and HOWARD, J.D., eds., 1987: Sea—level fluctuation and coastal evolution; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 41, 267 p.Google Scholar
  113. OFF, T., 1963: Rhythmic linear sand bodies caused by tidal currents; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 47, p. 324–341.Google Scholar
  114. PARRISH, J.T., GAYNOR, G.C., and SWIFT, D.J.P., 1984: Circulation in the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America, a review; in D.F. Stott and D.J. Glass, eds., The Mesozoic of Middle North America; Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 9, p.221–231.Google Scholar
  115. PARRISH, J.T., and PETERSON, F., 1988: Wind directions predicted from global circulation models and wind directions determined from eolian sandstones of the western United States—a comparison; Sedimentary Geology, v. 56, p. 261–282.Google Scholar
  116. PETERSON, F., 1988: Pennsylvanian to Jurassic eolian transportation systems in the western United States; Sedimentary Geology, v. 56, p. 207–260.Google Scholar
  117. PICHA, F., 1979: Ancient submarine canyons of Tethyan continental margins, Czechoslovakia; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 63, p. 67–86.Google Scholar
  118. PILKEY, O.H., Jr., LOCKER, S.D., and CLEARY, W.J., 1980: Comparison of sand—layer geometry on flat floors of 10 modern depositional basins; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 64, p. 841–856.Google Scholar
  119. PLINT, A.G., WALKER, R.G., and BERGMAN, K.M., 1986: Cardium Formation 6. Stratigraphic framework of the Cardium in subsurface; Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 34, p. 213–225.Google Scholar
  120. PORTER, M.L., 1986: Sedimentary record of erg migration; Geology, v. 14, p. 497–500.Google Scholar
  121. POSAMENTIER, H.W., JERVEY, M.T., and VAIL, P.R., 1988: Eustatic controls on clastic deposition; in C.K. Wilgus, B.S. Hastings, and C.G.St.C. Kendall, eds., Sea level research—an integrated approach; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 42, p. 109–154.Google Scholar
  122. PRATT, B.R., and JAMES, N.P., 1986: The St. George Group (Lower Ordovician) of western Newfoundland: tidal flat island model for carbonate sedimentation in shallow epeiric seas; Sedimentology, v. 33, p. 313–343.Google Scholar
  123. READ, J.F., 1985: Carbonate platform facies models; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 69, p. 1–21.Google Scholar
  124. READ, J.F., GROTZINGER, J.P., BOVA, J.A., and KOERSCHNER, W.F., 1986: Models for generation of carbonate cycles; Geology, v. 14, p. 107–110.Google Scholar
  125. READING, H.G., ed., 1978: Sedimentary environments and facies; Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 557 p.Google Scholar
  126. READING, H.G., ed., 1986: Sedimentary environments and facies, 2nd ed.; Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 615 p.Google Scholar
  127. RICCI LUCCHI, F., AND VALMORI, E., 1980: Basin—wide turbidites in a Miocene over—supplied deepsea plain: a geometrical analysis; Sedimentology, v. 27, p. 241–270.Google Scholar
  128. ROBERTS, H.H., 1987: Modern carbonate—siliciclastic transitions: humid and arid tropical examples; Sedimentary Geology, v. 50, p. 25–66.Google Scholar
  129. RUPKE, N.A., 1976: Large—scale slumping in a flysch basin, southwestern Pyrenees; Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 132, p. 121–130.Google Scholar
  130. RYAN, W.B.F., et al., 1978: Bedrock geology in New England submarine canyons; Oceanologica Acta, v. 1, p. 233–254.Google Scholar
  131. SANFORD, B.V., and NORRIS, A.W., 1973: Hudson Platform; in R.G. McCrossan, ed., The future petroleum provinces of Canada—their geology and potential; Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 1, p. 387–410.Google Scholar
  132. SANTISTEBAN, C., and TABERNER, C., 1988: Sedimentary models of siliciclastic deposits and coral reef interrelation; in L.J. Doyle and H.H. Roberts, eds., Carbonate—clastic transitions, Developments in sedimentology 42; Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 35–76.Google Scholar
  133. SCHREIBER, B.C., 1986: Arid shorelines and evaporites; in H.G. Reading, ed., Sedimentary environments and facies, 2nd ed.; Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, p. 189–228.Google Scholar
  134. SHANMUGAM, G., and MOIOLA, R.J., 1988. Submarine fans: characteristics, models, classification, and reservoir potential; Earth Science Reviews, v. 24, p. 383–428.Google Scholar
  135. SHAW, A.B., 1964: Time in stratigraphy; McGrawHill, New York, 365 p.Google Scholar
  136. SHEPARD, F.P., 1981: Submarine canyons: multiple causes and long—time persistence; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 65, p. 1062–1077.Google Scholar
  137. SLATT, R.M., 1984: Continental shelf topography: key to understanding distribution of shelf sand—ridge deposits from Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 68, p. 1107–1120.Google Scholar
  138. SONNENFELD, P., 1985: Models of Upper Miocene evaporite genesis in the Mediterranean region; in D.J. Stanley and F.—C. Wezel, eds., Geological evolution of the Mediterranean Basin; SpringerVerlag Inc., New York. D. 323–346.Google Scholar
  139. SONNENFELD, P., and FINETTI, I., 1985: Messinian evaporites in the Mediterranean: a model of continuous inflow and outflow; in D.J. Stanley and F.—C. Wezel, eds., Geological evolution of the Mediterranean Basin; Springer—Verlag Inc., New York, p. 347–353.Google Scholar
  140. SOUTHARD, J.B., and STANLEY, D.J., 1976: Shelf—break processes and sedimentation; in D.J. Stanley and D.J.P. Swift, eds., Marine sediment transport and environmental management; Wiley, New York, p. 351–377.Google Scholar
  141. STANLEY, D.J., and MALDONADO, A., 1979: Levantine Sea—Nile Cone lithostratigraphic evolution: quantitative analysis and correlation with paleoclimatic and eustatic oscillations in the late Quaternary; Sedimentary Geology, v. 23, p. 37–65.Google Scholar
  142. STOW, D.A.V., 1986: Deep clastic seas; in H.G. Reading, ed., Sedimentary environments and facies, 2nd ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications, p. 399–444.Google Scholar
  143. STRIDE, A.H., ed., 1982: Offshore tidal sands; Chapman and Hall, London, 222 p.Google Scholar
  144. STUART, C.T., and CAUGHEY, C.A., 1977: Seismic facies and sedimentology of terrigenous Pleistocene deposits in northwest and central Gulf of Mexico; in C.E. Payton, ed., Seismic stratigraphy—applications to hydrocarbon exploration; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, p. 249–276.Google Scholar
  145. SUTER, J.R., BERRYHILL, H.R., Jr., and PENLAND, S., 1987: Late Quaternary sea—level fluctuations and depositional sequences, southwest Louisiana continental shelf; in D. Nummedal, O.H. Pilkey, and J.D. Howard, eds., Sea—level fluctuation and coastal evolution; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 41, p. 199–219.Google Scholar
  146. SWIFT, D.J.P., and RICE, D.D., 1984: Sand bodies on muddy shelves: a model for sedimentation in the Western Interior seaway, North America; in R.W. Tillman and C.T. Siemers, eds., Siliciclastic shelf sediments; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 34, p. 43–62.Google Scholar
  147. SWIFT, D.J.P., HUDELSON, P.M., BRENNER, R.L., and THOMPSON, P., 1987: Shelf construction in a foreland basin: storm beds, shelf sandbodies, and shelf—slope depositional sequences in the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Book Cliffs, Utah; Sedimentology, v. 34, p. 423–457.Google Scholar
  148. THORSTEINSSON, R., and TOZER, E.T., 1970: Geology of the Arctic Archipelago; in R.J.W. Douglas, ed., Geology and economic minerals of Canada; Geological Survey of Canada Economic Geology Report 1, p. 548–590.Google Scholar
  149. TOOMEY, D.F., MOUNTJOY, E.W., and MACKENZIE, W.S., 1970: Upper Devonian (Frasnian) algae and foraminifera from the Ancient Wall carbonate complex, Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada; Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 7, p. 946–981.Google Scholar
  150. TOWNSON, W.G., 1975: Lithostratigraphy and deposition of the type Portlandian; Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 131, p. 619–638.Google Scholar
  151. VAIL, P.R., 1987: Seismic stratigraphy interpretation using sequence stratigraphy, Part 1: Seismic stratigraphy interpretation procedure; in A.W. Bally, ed., Atlas of seismic stratigraphy; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology 27, v. 1, p. 1–10.Google Scholar
  152. VAIL, P.R., HARDENBOL, J., and TODD, R.G., 1984: Jurassic unconformities, chronostratigraphy, and sea level changes from seismic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy; in J.S. Schlee, ed., Interregional unconformities and hydrocarbon accumulation; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 36, p. 129–144.Google Scholar
  153. VAN WAGONER, J.C., MITCHUM, R.M., Jr., POSAMENTIER, H.W., and VAIL, P.R., 1987: Seismic stratigraphy interpretation using sequence stratigraphy, Part 2: key definitions of sequence stratigraphy; in A.W. Bally, ed., Atlas of seismic stratigraphy; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology 27, v. 1, p. 11–14.Google Scholar
  154. WALKER, K.R., SHANMUGAM, G., and RUPPEL, S.C., 1983: A model for carbonate to terrigenous clastic sequences; Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 94, p. 700–712.Google Scholar
  155. WARREN, J.K., and KENDALL, C.G.St.C., 1985: Comparison of sequences formed in marine sabkha (subaerial) and salina (subaqueous) settings—modern and ancient; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 69, p. 1013–1023.Google Scholar
  156. WEBER, K.J., and DAUKORU, E., 1975: Petroleum geology of the Niger Delta; Proceedings of the 9th World Petroleum Conference, p. 14.Google Scholar
  157. WILGUS, C.K., HASTINGS, B.S., KENDALL, C.G.ST.C., H.W. POSAMENTIER, C.A. ROSS and J.C. VAN WAGONER, eds., 1988: Sea level changes—an integrated approach; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 42, 407 p.Google Scholar
  158. WILSON, I.G., 1973: Ergs; Sedimentary Geology, v. 10, p. 77–106.Google Scholar
  159. WILSON, J.L., 1975: Carbonate facies in geologic history; Springer—Verlag, New York, 471 p.Google Scholar
  160. WILSON, J.L., and D’ARGENIO, B., 1982: Penrose conference report: controls on carbonate platforms and basin systems development; Geology, v. 10., p. 659–661.Google Scholar
  161. WORZEL, J.L., and BURK, C.A., 1979: The margins of the Gulf of Mexico; in J.S. Watkins, L. Montadert, and P.W. Dickerson, eds., Geological and geophysical investigations of continental margins; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 29, p. 403–419.Google Scholar
  162. WRIGHT, V.P., 1986: Facies sequences on a carbonate ramp: the Carboniferous Limestone of South Wales; Sedimentology, v. 33, p. 221–242.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew D. Miall
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations