Anatomy and Pathology of the Umbilical Cord and Major Fetal Vessels

  • Kurt Benirschke
  • Peter Kaufmann

Abstract

The development of the umbilical cord is closely related to that of the amnion (see Chapter 11). Throughout the last days of the second week p.c., the blastocystic cavity is being filled by a loose meshwork of mesoderm cells, the extraembryonic mesoblast, which surrounds the embryoblast (Figure 12.1a, day 13). The embryoblast at that time is composed of two vesicles: the amnionic vesicle and the primary yolk sac. When these two vesicles are in contact with each other, they form the double-layered embryonic disk. During the following days the extraembryonic mesoderm cells are rearranged in such a way that they line the inner surface of the trophoblastic shell as chorionic mesoderm. They also cover the surface of the two embryonic vesicles (Figure 12.1b, day 18). Between the two mesoderm layers the exocoelom cavity forms. It largely separates the embryo and its mesodermal cover from the chorionic mesoderm. The exocoelom is bridged by the mesoderm in only one place, which lies basal to the amnionic vesicle. This mesenchymal connection is referred to as the connecting stalk (Figure 12.1, day 18). It fixes the early embryo to the membranes and is the early forerunner of the umbilical cord. During the same period (around day 18 p.c.) a duct-like extension of the yolk sac, originating from the future caudal region of the embryo, develops into the connecting stalk. This structure is the transitory allantois, the primitive extraembryonic urinary bladder. Heifetz (1996) estimated that some 20% of umbilical cords at term contained remnants of allantoic or omphalomesenteric duct, primarily near the fetal end.

Keywords

Umbilical Cord Umbilical Artery Umbilical Vessel Single Umbilical Artery Nuchal Cord 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, S.L., Callen, P.W. and Filly, R.A.: Umbilical vein thrombosis: sonographic detection in utero. J. Ultrasound Med. 4: 283–285, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abuhamad, A., Shaffer, W, Mari, G., Copel, J., Hobbins, J. and Evans, A.: Single umbilical artery: does it matter which artery is missing ? Am. J. Obstet. Gyneco1. 173: 728–732, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akiyama, H., Kohzu, H. and Matsuoka, M.: An approach to detection and expulsion with new clinical sign: a study based on hemodynamic method and ultrasonography. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 140: 505–511, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, J.R., Carrera, G.M. and Weed, J.C.: Neonatal death due to embolism. J.A.M.A. 207: 756–757, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altemani, A.M.: Thrombosis of fetal placental vessels: a quantitative study in placentas of stillbirths. Pathol. Res. Pract. 182: 685–689, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Altemani, A.M. and Lopes de Faria, J.: Non-thrombotic changes of fetal placental vessels. A qualitative and quantitative study. Pathol. Res. Pract. 182: 676–683, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Altshuler, G.: Some placental considerations related to neurodevelopmental and other disorders. J. Child Neurol. 8: 78–94, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Altshuler, G. and Hyde, S.: Meconium induced vasoconstriction: a potential cause of cerebral and other fetal hypoperfusion and of poor pregnancy outcome. Child Neurol. 4: 137–142, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Altshuler, G., Tsang, R. and Ermocilla, R.: Single umbilical artery: correlation of clinical status and umbilical cord histology. Am. J. Dis. Child. 129: 697–700, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Anagnostakis, D., Kazlaris, E., Xanthou, M. and Maounis, F.: Umbilical cord entanglement: a cause of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage? Helv. Paediatr. Acta 29: 167–171, 1974.Google Scholar
  11. Andrade, A.: Anatomical and radiographic study on the anastomosis and branching of the umbilical arteries in white and non-white Brazilians. Acta Anat. (Basel) 70: 66–75, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Anhalt, H., Marino, R.V. and Rosenfeld, W.: Retained umbilical stump: clinical approaches and separation anxiety. Am. J. Dis. Child. 146: 1413–1414, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Antoine, C., Young, B.K., Silverman, E, Greco, M.A. and Alvarez, S.P.: Sinusoidal fetal heart rate pattern with vasa previa in twin pregnancy. J. Reprod. Med. 27: 295–300, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Arts, N.F.T.: Investigations on the vascular system of the placenta. I. General introduction and the fetal vascular system. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 82: 147–158, 1961.Google Scholar
  15. Arvy, L. and Pilleri, G.: The cetacean umbilical cord; studies of the umbilical cord of two Platanistoidea: Platanista gangetica and Pontoporia blainvillei. In, Investigations on Cetacea, Vol. VII. G. Pilleri, ed., pp. 91–103. Brain Anatomy Institute, Berne, Switzerland, 1976b.Google Scholar
  16. Asmussen, I.: Ultrastructure of human umbilical veins. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 57: 253–255, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Asmussen, I. and Kjeldsen, K.: Intimal ultrastructure of human umbilical arteries: observations on arteries from newborn children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers. Circ. Res. 36: 579–589, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Atalla, R.K., Abrams, K., Bell, S.C. and Taylor, D.J.: Newborn acid-base status and umbilical cord morphology. Obstet. Gynecol. 92: 865–868, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bacsich, P. and Riddell, W.J.B.: Structure and nutrition of the cornea, cartilage and Wharton’s jelly. Nature (Lond.) 155: 271, 1945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bacsich, R and Smout, C.F.V.: Some observations on the foetal vessels of the human placenta with an account of the corrosion technique. J. Anat. 72: 358–364, 1938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Baergen, R., Benirschke, K. and Ulich, T.R.: Cytokine expression in the placenta. The role of interleukin 1 and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist expression in chorioamnionitis and parturition. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118: 52–55, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bahary, C.M., Gabbai, M. and Eckerling, B.: Rupture of the umbilical cord: report of a case. Obstet. Gynecol. 26: 130–132, 1965.Google Scholar
  23. Baill, I.C., Moore, G.W. and Hedrick, L.A.: Abscess of allantoic duct remnant. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 161: 334–336, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Barents, J.W.: Over tumoren van de navelstreng en de placenta. Ned. Tijdschr. Verlosk. Gynaecol. 52: 243–251, 1953.Google Scholar
  25. Barron, S., Riley, E.E, Smotherman, W.P. and Kotch, L.E.: Umbilical cord length in rats is altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. Teratology 31: 49A–50A, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Barry, F.E., McCoy, C.P. and Callahan, W.P.: Hemangioma of the umbilical cord. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 62: 675–680, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Becker, V. and Dolling, D.: Gefäßverschlüsse in der Placenta von Totgeborenen. Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. 338: 305–314, 1965.Google Scholar
  28. Becker, V. and Röckelein, G.: Pathologie der weiblichen Genitalorgane I. Pathologie der Plazenta und des Abortes. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Beer, D.C.: Vasa previa: review of current concepts of management and report of a case. Obstet. Gynecol. 3: 595–597, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bender, H.G., Werner, C. and Karsten, C.: Zum Einfluß der Nabelschnurstruktur auf Schwangerschafts-und Geburtsverlauf. Arch. Gynäkol. 225: 347–362, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bendon, R.W., Tyson, R.W., Baldwin, V.J., Cashner, K.A., Momouni, F and Miodovnik, M.: Umbilical cord ulceration and intestinal atresia: a new association? Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 164: 582–586, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Benirschke, K.: You need a sympathetic pathologist! The borderline of embryology and pathology revisited. Teratology 36: 389–393, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Benirschke, K: College of American Pathologists Conference XIX on Examination of the Placenta: Summary. Arch. Path. Lab. Med. 115: 720–721, 1991.Google Scholar
  34. Benirschke, K.: Obstetrically important lesions of the umbilical cord. J. Reprod. Med. 39: 262–272, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Benirschke, K. and Bourne, G.L.: The incidence and prognostic implication of congenital absence of one umbilical artery. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 79: 251–254, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Benirschke, K. and Brown, W.H.: A vascular anomaly of the umbilical cord: the absence of one umbilical artery in the umbilical cords of normal and abnormal fetuses. Obstet. Gynecol. 6: 399–404, 1953.Google Scholar
  37. Benirschke, K. and Dodds, J.P.: Angiomyxoma of the umbilical cord with atrophy of an umbilical artery. Obstet. Gynecol. 30: 99–102, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Benirschke, K. and Driscoll, S.G.: The Pathology of the Human Placenta. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1967.Google Scholar
  39. Benirschke, K., Sullivan, M.M. and Marin-Padilla, M.: Size and number of umbilical vessels: a study of multiple pregnancy in man and the armadillo. Obstet. Gynecol. 24: 819–834, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Bergman, E, Lundin, P. and Malmström, T.: Mucoid degeneration of Wharton’s jelly: an umbilical cord anomaly threatening foetal life. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 40: 372–378, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bergström, H.: Intrauterin fosterdöd genom förblödning. Nord. Med. 4: 592–593, 1963.Google Scholar
  42. Bhargava, I. and Raja, P.T.K.: Arteriovenous crossings on the chorial surface of the human placenta in abnormal pregnancy and development. Experientia (Basel) 25: 831–832, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bhargava, I., Chakravarty, A. and Raja, P.T.K.: Anatomy of foetal blood vessels on the chorial surface of the human placenta. IV. With absence of one umbilical artery. Acta Anat. (Basel) 80: 620–635, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Bilek, K., Roth, K. and Piskazeck, K.: Insertio-velamentosaBlutung vor dem Blasensprung. Zentralbl. Gynäkol. 84: 1536–1541, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Blackburn, W. and Cooley, N.R.: The umbilical cord. In, Human Malformations and Related Anomalies, Vol. II. R.E. Stevenson, J.G. Hall and Goodman, R.M., eds., pp. 1081–1141. Oxford Monographs on Medical Genetics. Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.Google Scholar
  46. Blackburn, W., Cooley, N.R. and Manci, E.A.: Correlations between umbilical cord structure—composition and normal and abnormal fetal development. In, Proceedings of the Greenwood Genetics Conference, Vol. 7. R.A. Saul, ed., pp. 180–181. Jacobs Press, Clinton, SC, 1988.Google Scholar
  47. Blanc, W.A. and Allan, G.W.: Intrafunicular ulceration of persistent omphalomesenteric duct with intra-amniotic hemorrhage and fetal death. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 82: 1392–1396, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Bobitt, J.R.: Abnormal antepartum fetal heart rate tracings, failure to intervene, and fetal death: review of five cases reveals potential pitfalls of antepartum monitoring programs. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 133: 415–421, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Bodelsson, G., Sjöberg, N.-O. and Stjernquist, M.: Contractile effect of endothelin in the human uterine artery and autoradiographic localization of its binding sites. Am. J. Obstetr. Gynecol. 167: 745–750, 1992.Google Scholar
  50. Boué, D.R., Stanley, C. and Baergen, R.N.: Placental pathology casebook. J. Perinatol. 15: 429–431, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Bourne, G.L.: The Human Amnion and Chorion. Lloyd-Luke, London, 1962.Google Scholar
  52. Boyd, J.D. and Hamilton, W.J.: The Human Placenta. Heffer, Cambridge, 1970.Google Scholar
  53. Brady, A.G.: Knotted umbilical cord as a cause of death in a Cercopithecus aethiops fetus. Lab. Anim. Sci. 33: 375–376, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Brant, H.A. and Lewis, B.V.: Prolapse of the umbilical cord. Lancet 2: 1443–1445, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Brar, H.S., Medearis, A.L., DeVore, G.R. and Platt, L.D.: Maternal and fetal blood flow velocity waveforms in patients with preterm labor: effect of tocolytics. Obstet. Gynecol. 72: 209–214, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Bret, A.J. and Bardiaux, M.: Hématome du cordon. Rev. Fr. Gynécol. Obstét. 55: 240–249, 1956.Google Scholar
  57. Broome, D.L., Kellogg, B., Weiss, B.A. and Wilson, M.G.: Needle puncture of the fetus during amniocentesis. Lancet 2: 604, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Broome, D.L., Wilson, M.G., Weiss, B. and Kellogg, B.: Needle puncture of the fetus: a complication of second-trimester amniocentesis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 126: 247–252, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Browne, F.J.: On the abnormalities of the umbilical cord which may cause antenatal death. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 32: 17–48, 1925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Busacca, M., Dejana, E., Balconi, G., Olivieri, S., Pietra, A., Vergara-Dauden, M. and de Gaetano, G.: Reduced prostacyclin production by cultured endothelial cells from umbilical arteries of babies born to women who smoke. Lancet 2: 609–610, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Cai, W.Q., Bodin, P., Sexton, A., Loesch, A. and Burnstock, G.: Localization of neuropeptide Y and atrial natriuretic peptide in the endothelial cells of human umbilical blood vessels. Cell Tissue Res. 272: 175–181, 1993a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Cai, W.Q., Terenghi, G., Bodin, P., Burnstock, G. and Polak, J.M.: In situ hybridization of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA in the endothelial cells of human umbilical vessels. Histochemistry 100: 277–283, 1993b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Camilleri, A.P.: Umbilical cord. Br. Med. J. 2: 757, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Cardoso, L.E.M., Erlich, R.B., Rudge, M.C., Peracoli, J.C. and Mourao, P.A.S.: A comparative analysis of glycosaminoglycans from human umbilical arteries in normal subjects and in pathological conditions affecting pregnancy. Lab. Invest. 67: 588–595, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Carp, H.J.A., Mashiach, S. and Serr, D.M.: Vasa previa: a major complication and its management. Obstet. Gynecol. 53: 273–275, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Chantler, C., Baum, J.D. and Scopes, J.W.: Giant umbilical cord associated with a patent urachus and fused umbilical arteries. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 76: 273–274, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Chasnoff, I.J. and Fletcher, M.A.: True knot of the umbilical cord. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 127: 425–427, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Chaurasia, B.D. and Agarwal, B.M.: Helical structure of the umbilical cord. Acta Anat. (Basel) 103: 226–230, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Clapp, J.F., Peress, N.S., Wesley, M. and Mann, L.I.: Brain damage after intermittent partial cord occlusion in the chronically instrumented fetal lamb. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159: 504–509, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Clare, N.M., Hayashi, R. and Khodr, G.: Intrauterine death from umbilical cord hematoma. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 103: 46–47, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Clarke, J.A.: An x-ray microscopic study of the vasa vasorum of the human umbilical arteries. Z. Zellforsch. 66: 293–299, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Colgan, T.J. and Luk, S.C.: Umbilical-cord torsion, thrombosis, and intrauterine death of a twin. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 106: 101, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Collins, J.H.: Two cases of multiple umbilical cord abnormalities resulting in stillbirth: prenatal observation with ultrasonography and fetal heart rates. Am. J. Obstetr. Gynecol. 168: 125–128, 1993.Google Scholar
  74. Collins, J.H.: Fetal grasping of the umbilical cord. Reply. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172: 1071, 1995a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Collins, J.H.: Prenatal observation of umbilical cord torsion with subsequent premature labor and delivery of a 31-week infant with mild nonimmune hydrops. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172: 1048–1049, 1995b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Collins, J.H.: Nuchal cord type A and type B. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177: 94, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Collins, J.C., Muller, R.J. and Collins, C.L.: Prenatal observation of umbilical cord abnormalities: a triple knot and torsion of the umbilical cord. Am. J. Obstet. Gyneco1. 169: 102–104, 1993.Google Scholar
  78. Collins, J.H., Geddes, D., Collins, C.L. and De Angelis, L.: Nuchal cord: a definition and a study associating placental location and nuchal cord incidence. J. La. State Med. Soc. 143: 18–23, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Collins, J.H., Collins, C.L., Weckwerth, S.R. and De Angelis, L.: Nuchal cords: timing of prenatal diagnosis and duration. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 173: 768, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Cook, F.G., Taylor, R. and Gillan, J.E.: Placental venous thrombosis—a clinically significant finding in intrauterine death. Lab. Invest. 56: 1P, 1987.Google Scholar
  81. Cook, V., Weeks, J., Brown, J. and Bendon, R.: Umbilical artery occlusion and fetoplacental thromboembolism. Obstet. Gynecol. 85: 870–872, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Cordero, D.R., Helfgott, A.W., Landy, H.J., Reik, R.F., Medina, C. and O’Sullivan, M.J.: A non-hemorrhagic manifestation of vasa previa: a clinicopathologic case report. Obstet. Gynecol. 82: 698–700, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Corkill, T.F.: The infant’s vulnerable life-line. Aust. N. Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1: 154–160, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Corridan, M., Kendall, E.D. and Begg, J.D.: Cord entanglement causing premature separation and amniotic fluid embolism: case report. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 87: 935–940, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Costakos, D.T., Williams, A.C., Love, L.A. and Wood, B.P.: Patent urachal duct. Am. J. Dis. Child. 146: 951–952, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Coulter, J.B.S., Scott, J.M. and Jordan, M.M.: Oedema of the umbilical cord and respiratory distress in the newborn. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 82: 453–459, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Crawford, J.M.: A study of human placental growth with observations on the placenta in erythroblastosis foetalis. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 66: 885–896, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Crawford, J.S.: Cord round the neck: incidence and sequelae. Acta Paediatr. (Stockh.) 51: 594–603, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Crawford, J.S.: Cord around the neck: further analysis of incidence. Acta Paediatr. (Stockh.) 53: 553–557, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Crichton, J.L.: Tensile strength of the umbilical cord. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115: 77–80, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Critchlow, C.W., Leet, T.L., Benedetti, T.J. and Daling, J.R.: Risk factors and infant outcomes associated with umbilical cord prolapse: a population-based case-control study among births in Washington State. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 170: 613–618, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Cullen, T.S.: Embryology, Anatomy, and Disease of the Umbilicus Together with Diseases of the Urachus. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1916.Google Scholar
  93. Dadak, C., Kefalides, A., Sinzinger, H. and Weber, G.: Reduced umbilical artery prostacyclin formation in complicated pregnancies. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 144: 792–795, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Davignon, J., Lorenz, R.R. and Shepherd, J.T.: Response of human umbilical artery to changes in transmural pressure. Am. J. Physiol. 209: 51–59, 1965.Google Scholar
  95. Degani, S., Lewinsky, R.M., Berger, H. and Spiegel, D.: Sono-graphic estimation of umbilical coiling index and correlation with Doppler flow characteristics. Obstet. Gynecol. 86: 990–993, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Del Valle, G.O., Santerini, K., Sanchez-Ramos, L., Gaudier, EL. and Delke, I.: The straight umbilical cord: significance and perinatal implications (abstract 83). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172: 286, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. de Sa, D.J.: Rupture of fetal vessels on placental surface. Arch. Dis. Child. 46: 495–501, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. de Sa, D.J.: Intimal cushions in foetal placental veins. J. Pathol. 110: 347–352, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. de Sa, D.J.: Diseases of the umbilical cord. In, Pathology of the Placenta. E.V.D.K. Perrin, ed. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  100. de Sa, M.F. and Meirelles, R.S.: Vasodilating effect of estrogen on the human umbilical artery. Gynecol. Invest. 8: 307–313, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. DeVore, G.R., Mayden, K., Tortora, M., Berkowitz, R.L. and Hobbins, J.C.: Dilation of the umbilical vein in rhesus hemolytic anemia: a predictor of severe disease. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 141: 464 466, 1981.Google Scholar
  102. Didolkar, S.M., Hal, J., Phelan, J., Gutberlett, R. and Hill, J.L.: The prenatal diagnosis and management of a hepatoomphalocele. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 141: 221–222, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Dildy, G.A. and Clark, S.L.: Umbilical cord prolapse. Contemp. Obstet. Gynecol. 38: 23–31, 1993.Google Scholar
  104. Dillon, W.P. and O’Leary, L.A.: Detection of fetal cord compromise secondary to umbilical cord hematoma with the non-stress test. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 141: 102–103, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Dippel, A.L.: Hematomas of the umbilical cord. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 70: 51–57, 1940.Google Scholar
  106. Dippel, A.L.: Maligned umbilical cord entanglements. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 88: 1012–1018, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Divon, M.Y.: Umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry: clinical utility in high-risk pregnancies. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174: 10–14, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Di Terlizzi, G. and Rossi, G.F.: Studio clinico-statistico sulle anomalie del funiculo. Ann. Obstet. Ginecol. 77:459–474, 1955. [See Fox, 1978.]Google Scholar
  109. Dolff, M.: Die sogenannten Rekanalisationen der Stammzottengefäße bei Endarteritis obliterans der Plazentagefäße. Arch. Gynecol. 226: 325–332, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Dombrowski, M.P., Budev, H., Wolfe, H.M., Sokol, R.J. and Perrin, E.: Fetal hemorrhage from umbilical cord hemangioma. Obstet. Gynecol. 70: 439–442, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Doshi, N. and Klionsky B.: Pathology of disseminated intravascular coagulation in the newborn. Lab. Invest. 40: 303, 1979.Google Scholar
  112. Dreyfus, M., Magny, J.F., Bridey F., Schwarz, H.P., Planché, C., Dehan, M. and Tchernia, G.: Treatment of homozygous protein C deficiency and neonatal purpura fulminans with a purified protein C concentrate. N. Engl. J. Med. 325: 1565–1568, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Dudiak, C.M., Salomon, C.G., Posniak, H.V., Olson, M.C. and Flisak, M.E.: Sonography of the umbilical cord. Radiographics 15: 1035–1050, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Dunn, P.M., Fraser, I.D. and Raper, A.B.: Influence of early cord ligation on the transplacental passage of foetal cells. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 73: 757–760, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Dyer, D.C.: Comparison of the constricting actions produced by serotonin and prostaglandins on isolated sheep umbilical arteries and veins. Gynecol. Invest. 1: 204–209, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Earn, A.A.: The effect of congenital abnormalities of the umbilical cord and placenta on the newborn and mother: a survey of 5676 consecutive deliveries. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 58: 456–459, 1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Eastman, N.J.: Editorial comments. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 22: 16, 1967.Google Scholar
  118. Eastman, N.J. and Hellman, L.M., eds.: Williams Obstetrics, 12th Ed. Appleton, New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  119. Eddleman, K.A., Lockwood, C.J., Berkowitz, G.S., Lapinski, R.H. and Berkowitz, R.L.: Clinical significance and sono-graphic diagnosis of velamentous umbilical cord insertion. Am. J. Perinatol. 9: 123–126, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Editorial: Closure of umbilical blood-vessels. Lancet 2: 381, 1966.Google Scholar
  121. Edmonds, H.W.: The spiral twist of the normal umbilical cord in twins and in singletons. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 67: 102–120, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Eggens, J.H. and Bruins, H.W.: An unusual case of fetal distress. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 148: 219–220, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ellison, J.P.: The nerves of the umbilical cord in man and the rat. Am. J. Anat. 132: 53–60, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ente, G., Penzer, P.H. and Kenigsberg, K.: Giant umbilical cord associated with patent urachus. Am. J. Dis. Child. 120: 82–83, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Feinstein, S.J., Lodeiro, J.G., Vintzileos, A.M., Weinbaum, P.J., Campbell, W.A. and Nochimson, D.J.: Intrapartum ultrasound diagnosis of nuchal cord as a decisive factor in management. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 153: 308–309, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Ferrazzi, E., Brambati, B., Lanzani, A., Oldrini, A., Stripparo, L., Guerneri, A. and Makowski, E.L.: The yolk sac in early pregnancy failure. Am. J. Obstet. Gyneco1. 158: 137–142, 1988.Google Scholar
  127. Fisk, N.M., Maclachlan, N., Ellis, C., Tannirandorn, Y., Tonge, H.M. and Rodeck, C.H.: Absent end-diastolic flow in first trimester umbilical artery. Lancet 2: 1256–1257, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Fletcher, S.: Chirality in the umbilical cord. Br. J. Obstetr. Gynaecol. 100: 234–236, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Fok, R.Y., Pavlova, Z., Benirschke, K., Paul, R.H. and Platt, L.D.: The correlation of arterial lesions with umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry in placentas of small-for-dates pregnancies. Obstet. Gynecol. 75: 578–583, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Foldes, J.J.: Spontaneous intrauterine rupture of the umbilical cord: report of a case. Obstet. Gynecol. 9: 608–609, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Fortune, D.W. and >Östör, A.G.: Umbilical artery aneurysm. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 131: 339–340, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Fortune, D.W. and Östör, A.G.: Angiomyxomas of the umbilical cord. Obstet. Gynecol. 55: 375–378, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Fox, H.: Thrombosis of foetal arteries in the human placenta. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 73: 961–965, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Fox, H.: Abnormalities of the foetal stem arteries in the human placenta. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 74: 734–738, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Fox, H.: Pathology of the Placenta. Saunders, London, 1978.Google Scholar
  136. Fox, H.: Pathology of the Placenta. 2nd Ed. Saunders, London, 1997.Google Scholar
  137. Fox, H. and Jacobson, H.N.: Innervation of the human umbilical cord and umbilical vessels. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 103: 384–389, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Fox, H. and Khong, T.Y.: Lack of innervation of human umbilical cord. An immunohistochemical and histochemical study. Placenta 11: 59–62, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Fribourg, S.: Cord length and complications. Obstet. Gynecol. 58: 533, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Froehlich, L.A. and Fujikura, T.: Significance of a single umbilical artery: report from the collaborative study of cerebral palsy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 94: 274–279, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Fujikura, T. and Benson, R.C.: Placentitis and fibrous occlusion of fetal vessels in the placenta of stillborn infants. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 89: 225–229, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Fujikura, T. and Carleton, J.H.: Unilateral thickening of fetal arteries on the placenta resembling arteriosclerosis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 100: 843–845, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Fujikura, T. and Hosoda, Y: Unilateral thickening of placental fetal veins. Placenta 11: 241–245, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Fujinaga, M., Chinn, A. and Shepard, T.H.: Umbilical cord growth in human and rat fetuses: evidence against the “stretch hypothesis.” Teratology 41: 333–339, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Gad, C.: A case of haemorrhage in labour from a placental vessel causing foetal death. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 47: 342–344, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Galle, P.C. and Meis, P.J.: Complications of amniocentesis: a review. J. Reprod. Med. 27: 149–155, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Gardiner, J.P: The umbilical cord: normal length; length in cord complications; etiology and frequency of coiling. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 34: 252–256, 1922.Google Scholar
  148. Gardner, D.G., Hedges, B.K., Lapointe, M.C. and Deschapper, C.F.: Expression of the atrial natriuretic peptide gene in human fetal heart. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 69: 729–737, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Gardner, R.F.R. and Trussell, R.R.: Ruptured hematoma of the umbilical cord. Obstet. Gynecol. 24: 791–793, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Gassner, C.B. and Paul, R.H.: Laceration of umbilical cord vessels secondary to amniocentesis. Obstet. Gynecol. 48: 627–630, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Gebrane-Younes, J., Minh, H.N. and Orcel, L.: Ultrastructure of human umbilical vessels: a possible role in amniotic fluid formation? Placenta 7: 173–185, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Genest, D.R.: Estimating the time of death in stillborn fetuses: II. Histologic evaluation of the placenta; a study of 71 stillborns. Obstet. Gynecol. 80: 585–592, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Gerlach, H.: Kongenitales Nabelarterienaneurysma. Z. Allg. Pathol. 111: 420–423, 1968.Google Scholar
  154. Ghosh, K.G., Ghosh, S.N. and Gupta, A.B.: Tensile properties of human umbilical cord. Indian J. Med. Res. 79: 538–541, 1984.Google Scholar
  155. Giacoia, G.P.: Body stalk anomaly: congenital absence of the umbilical cord. Obstet. Gynecol. 80: 527–529, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Giacomello, E: Ultrasound determination of nuchal cord in breech presentation. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159: 531–532, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Gianopoulos, J., Carver, T., Tomich, P.G., Karlman, R. and Gadwood, K.: Diagnosis of vasa previa with ultrasonography. Obstet. Gynecol. 69: 488–491, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Gilbert, E.: The short cord syndrome. Pediatr. Pathol. 5: 96, 1986.Google Scholar
  159. Giles, R.C., Donahue, J.M., Hong, C.B., Tuttle, RA., PetritesMurphy, M.B., Poonacha, K.B., Roberts, M.S., Tramontin, R.R., Smith, B. and Swerczek, T.W.: Causes of abortion, stillbirth, and perinatal death in horses: 3,527 cases (1986–1991). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 203: 1170–1175, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Giles, W., O’Callaghan, S., Read, M., Gude, N., King, R. and Brennecke, S.: Placental nitric oxide synthase activity and abnormal umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms. Obstet. Gynecol. 89: 49–52, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Gill, P. and Jarjoura, D.: Wharton’s jelly in the umbilical cord: a study of its quantitative variations and clinical correlates. J. Reprod. Med. 38: 611–614, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Glanfield, P.A. and Watson, R.: Intrauterine death due to umbilical cord torsion. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 110: 357–358, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Goerttler, K.: Die Bedeutung der funktionellen Struktur der Gefäßwand. I. Untersuchungen an der Nabelschnurarterie des Menschen. Gegenbaurs Morphol. Jahrb. 91: 368–393, 1951.Google Scholar
  164. Golden, A.S.: Umbilical cord-placental separation: a complication of IUD failure. J. Reprod. Med. 11: 79–80, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Gonzalez-Crussi, F and Roth, L.M.: The human yolk sac and yolk sac carcinoma. Hum. Pathol. 7: 675–691, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Goodlin, R.C.: Fetal dysmaturity, “lean cord,” and fetal distress. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 156: 1357, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Goodlin, R.C. and Clewell, W.H.: Sudden fetal death following amniocentesis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118: 285–288, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Grange, D.K., Arya, S., Opitz, J.M., Laxova, R., Herrmann, J. and Gilbert, E.F.: The short umbilical cord. Birth Defects 23: 191–214, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Grieco, A.: Rilievi clinico-statistici sulla inserzione velamentosa ed a racchetta del cordone ombellicale. Monit. Ostet.Ginecol. Endocrinol. Metab. 8: 89–102, 1936.Google Scholar
  170. Grosser, O.: Frühentwicklung, Eihautbildung and Placentation des Menschen and der Säugetiere. Bergmann, München, 1927.Google Scholar
  171. Gruber, F.H.: Gas in the umbilical vessels as a sign of fetal death. Radiology 89: 881–882, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Gruenwald, P.: The amount of fetal blood remaining in the placenta at birth. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 130: 326–329, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Gu, J., Pinheiro, J.M.B., Yu, C.Z., D’Andrea, M., Muralidharan, S. and Malik, A.: Detection of endothelin-like immunoreactivity in epithelium and fibroblasts of the human umbilical cord. Tissue Cell 23: 437–444, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Guidetti, A.A., Divon, M.Y., Cavaleri, R.L., Langer, O. and Merkatz, I.R.: Fetal umbilical artery flow velocimetry in postdate pregnancies. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 1521–1523, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Hall, S.P.: The thin cord syndrome. A review with a report of two cases. Obstet. Gynecol. 18: 507–509, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Hartman, K.R., Rawlings, J.S. and Feingold, M.: Protein C deficiency. Am. J. Dis. Child. 144: 1353–1354, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Harold, J.G., Siegel, R.J., Fitzgerald, G.A., Satoh, P. and Fishbein, M.C.: Differential prostaglandin production by human umbilical vasculature. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 112: 43–46, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Harris, L.E. and Wenzl, J.E.: Heterotopic pancreatic tissue and intestinal mucosa in the umbilical cord. N. Engl. J. Med. 268: 721–722, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Hathout, H.: The vascular pattern and mode of insertion of the umbilical cord in abortion material. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 71: 963–964, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Heckmann, U., Cornelius, H.V. and Freudenberg, V.: Das Teratom der Nabelschnur. Ein kasuistischer Beitrag zu den echten Tumoren der Nabelschnur. Geburtsh. Frauenheilkd. 32: 605–607, 1972.Google Scholar
  181. Heifetz, S.A.: Single umbilical artery: a statistical analysis of 237 autopsy cases and review of the literature. Perspect. Pediatr. Pathol. 8: 345–378, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Heifetz, S.A.: Thrombosis of the umbilical cord: analysis of 52 cases and literature review. Pediatr. Pathol. 8: 37–54, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Heifetz, S.A.: The umbilical cord: obstetrically important lesions. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 39: 571–587, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Heifetz, S.A. and Rueda-Pedraza, M.E.: Omphalomesenteric duct cysts of the umbilical cord. Pediatr. Pathol. 1: 325–335, 1983a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Heifetz, S.A. and Rueda-Pedraza, M.E.: Hemangiomas of the umbilical cord. Pediatr. Pathol. 1: 385–398, 1983b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Heinonen, S., Ryynänen, M., Kirkinen, P. and Saarikoski, S.: Perinatal diagnostic evaluation of velamentous umbilical cord insertion: clinical, Doppler, and ultrasonic findings. Obstet. Gynecol. 87: 112–117, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Hempel, E.: Die ultrastrukturelle Differenzierung des menschlichen Amnionepithels unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Nabelstrangs. Anat. Anz. 132: 356–370, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Hemsen, A., Gillis, C., Larsson, O., Haegerstrand, A. and Lundberg J.M.: Characterization, localization and actions of endothelins in umbilical vessels and placenta. Acta Physiol. Scand. 143: 395–404, 1991.Google Scholar
  189. Herberz, O.: Über die Insertio furcata funiculi umbilicalis. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 18: 336–351, 1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Herman, A., Zabow, E, Segal, M., Ron-el, R., Bukovsky, Y. and Caspi, E.: Extremely large number of twists of the umbilical cord causing torsion and intrauterine fetal death. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 35: 165–167, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Herrmann, U.J. and Sidiropoulos, D.: Single umbilical artery: prenatal findings. Prenatal Diagn. 8: 275–280, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Hersh, J. and Buchino, J.J.: Umbilical cord torsion/constriction sequence. In, Proceedings of the Greenwood Genetics Conference, Vol. 7. R.A. Saul, ed., pp. 181–182. Jacobs Press, Clinton, SC, 1988.Google Scholar
  193. Hertig, A.T.: The placenta: some new knowledge about an old organ. Obstet. Gynecol. 20: 859–866, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Hertig, A.T.: Human Trophoblast. Thomas, Springfield, 1968.Google Scholar
  195. Hey, A. and Röckelein, G.: Die sogenannten Endothelvakuolen der Plazentagefäße—Physiologie oder Krankheit. Pathologe 10: 66–67, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Hill, L.M., Mills, A., Peterson, C. and Boyles, D.: Persistent right umbilical vein: sonographic detection and subsequent neonatal outcome. Obstet. Gynecol. 84: 923–925, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Hill, L.M., DiNofrio, D.M. and Guzick, D.: Sonographic determination of first trimester umbilical cord length. J. Clin. Ultrasound 22: 435–438, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Hinson, R.M., Biswas, A., Mizelle, K.M. and Tunnessen, W.W.: Persistent omphalomesenteric duct. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 151: 1161–1162, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Hitschold, T.P.: Doppler flow velocity waveforms of the umbilical arteries correlate with intravillous blood volume. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 179: 540–543, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Hitschold, T., Weiss, E., Beck, T., Hüntefering, H. and Berle, P.: Low target birth weight or growth retardation? Umbilical Doppler flow velocity waveforms and histometric analysis of fetoplacental vascular tree. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 168: 1260–1264, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Hoag, R.W.: Fetomaternal hemorrhage associated with umbilical vein thrombosis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 154: 1271–1274, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Hobel, C.J., Emmanouilides, G.C., Townsend, D.E. and Yashiro, K.: Ligation of one umbilical artery in the fetal lamb: experimental production of fetal malnutrition. Obstet. Gynecol. 36: 582–588, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Hoboken, W.: Anatomia Secundinae. Ribbium, Ultrajecti, 1669.Google Scholar
  204. Hong, C.B., Donahue, J.M., Giles, R.C., Petrites-Murphy, M.B., Poonacha, K.B., Roberts, A.W., Smith, B.J., Tramontin, R.R., Tuttle, P.A. and Swerczek,T.W.: Equine abortion and stillbirth in central Kentucky during 1988 and 1989 foaling seasons. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 5: 560–566, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Horwitz, S.T., Finn, W.F. and Mastrota, V.F.: A study of umbilical cord encirclement. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 89: 970–974, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Howorka, E. and Kapczynski, W.: Unusual thickness of the fetal end of the umbilical cord. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 78: 283, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Hoyes, A.D.: Ultrastructure of the epithelium of the human umbilical cord. J. Anat. 105: 149–162, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Hoyme, H.E., Jones, K.L., Allen, M.I.V., Saunders, B.S. and Benirschke, K.: Vascular pathogenesis of transverse limb reduction defects. J. Pediatr. 101: 839–843, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Hyrtl, J.: Die Blutgefäße der menschlichen Nachgeburt in nor- malen and abnormen Verhältnissen. Braumüller, Wien, 1870. Ikeda, T., Murata, Y., Quilligan, E.J., Choi, B.H., Parer, J.T., Dol, S. and Park, S.D.: Physiologic and histologic changes in near- term fetal lambs exposed to asphyxia by partial umbilical cord occlusion. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 178: 24–32, 1998.Google Scholar
  210. Inglis, C.G., Kingdom, J.C.P. and Nelson D.M.: Atrial natriuretic hormone: a paracrine or endocrine role within the human placenta? JCEM 76: 1014–1018, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Irani, P.K.: Haematoma of the umbilical cord. Br. Med. J. 11: 1436–1437, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Ivemark, B.I., Lagergren, C. and Ljungqvist, A.: Generalized arterial calcification associated with hydramnios in two stillborn infants. Acta Paediatr. Suppl. (Stockh.) 135: 103–110, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. James, J.D. and Nickerson, C.W.: Laceration of umbilical artery and abruptio placentae secondary to amniocentesis. Obstet. Gynecol. 48s: 44s - 45s, 1976.Google Scholar
  214. Janosco, E.O., Lona, J.Z. and Belin, R.P.: Congenital anomalies of the umbilicus. Am. Surg. 43: 177–185, 1977.Google Scholar
  215. Jauniaux, E., Donner, C., Simon, P., Vanesse, M., Hustin, J. and Rodesch, F.: Pathological aspects of the umbilical cord after percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. Obstet. Gynecol. 73: 215–218, 1989a.Google Scholar
  216. Jauniaux, E., De Munter, C., Vanesse, M., Wilkin, P and Hustin, J.: Embryonic remnants of the umbilical cord: morphologic and clinical aspects. Hum. Pathol. 20: 458–462, 1989b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Javert, C.T. and Barton, B.: Congenital and acquired lesions of the umbilical cord and spontaneous abortion. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 63: 1065–1077, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Jimenez, E., Unger, M., Vogel, M., Lobeck, H., Wagner, G., Schwiermann, J., Schäfer, A. and Grosch-Wörner, I.: Morphologische Untersuchungen an Plazenten HIV-positiver Mütter. Pathologe 9: 228–234, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Jogee, M., Myatt, L. and Elder, M.G.: Decreased prostacyclin production by placental cells in culture from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth retardation. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 90: 247–250, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Jones, C.J.P., Jauniaux, E. and Campbell, S.: Development and degeneration of the secondary human yolk sac. Placenta 14: A32, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Jones, K.P., Wheater, A.W. and Musgrave, W.: Simple test for bleeding from vasa previa. Lancet 2: 1430–1431, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Jones, T.B., Sorokin, Y., Bhatia, R., Zador, I.E. and Bottoms, S.F.: Single umbilical artery: accurate diagnosis? Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 169: 538–540, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Kan, P.S. and Eastman, N.J.: Coiling of the umbilical cord around the foetal neck. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 64: 227–228, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Kaplan, C., August, D. and Mizrachi, H.: Single umbilical artery and cord accidents (abstract 17). Mod. Pathol. 3 (1): 4P, 1990.Google Scholar
  225. Karbowski, B., Bauch, H.J. and Schneider, H.P.G.: Functional differentiation of umbilical vein endothelial cells following pregnancy complicated by smoking or diabetes mellitus. Placenta 12: 405, 1991.Google Scholar
  226. Katz, V., Blanchard, G., Dingman, C., Bowes, W.A. and Cefalo, R.C.: Atenolol and short umbilical cords. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 156: 1271–1272, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Katz, Z., Shosham, Z., Lancet, M., Blickstein, I., Mogilner, B.M. and Zalel, Y.: Management of labor with umbilical cord prolapse: a 5-year study. Obstet. Gynecol. 72: 278–280, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Kelber, R.: Gespaltene “solitäre” Nabelschnurarterie. Arch. Gynäkol. 220: 319–323, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Kernbach, M.: Das neuroektoblastische System der Plazenta des Menschen. Anat. Anz. 113: 259–269, 1963.Google Scholar
  230. Kernbach, M.: Existe-t-il du tissu nerveux dans le placenta ? Rev. Fr. Gynécol. 64: 357–361, 1969.Google Scholar
  231. Kessler, A.: Blutungen aus den Nabelschnurgefässen in der Schwangerschaft. Gynaecologia 150: 353–365, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Khong, T.Y. and Dilly, S.A.: Calcification of umbilical artery: two distinct lesions. J. Clin. Pathol. 42: 931–934, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Khurana, A., Huettner, P.C. and Cole, ES.: Umbilical cord ulceration as a cause of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: report of a case and review of the literature. J. Perinato1. 15: 423–425, 1995.Google Scholar
  234. King, D.L.: Placental migration demonstrated by ultrasonography: a hypothesis of dynamic placentation. Radiology 109: 167–170, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. King, E.L.: Intrauterine death of the fetus due to abnormalities of the umbilical cord: report of three cases. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 12: 812–816, 1926.Google Scholar
  236. King, S.: Patent omphalomesenteric duct. Arch. Surg. 96: 545–548, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Kishore, N. and Sarkar, S.C.: The arterial patterns of placenta. A postpartum radiological study. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. India 17: 9–13, 1967.Google Scholar
  238. Kjeldsen, J. and Pedersen, J.: Relation of residual placental blood-volume to onset of respiration and the respiratory-distress syndrome in infants of diabetic and non-diabetic mothers. Lancet 1:180–184, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Klebe, J.G. and Ingomar, C.J.: Placental transfusion in infants of diabetic mothers elucidated by placental residual blood volume. Acta Paediatr. (Stockh.) 63: 59–64, 1974a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Klebe, J.G. and Ingomar, C.J.: The influence of the method of delivery and the clamping technique on the red cell volume in infants of diabetic and non-diabetic mothers. Acta Paediatr. (Stockh.) 63: 65–69, 1974b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Korst, L.M., Phelan, J.P., Ahn, M.O. and Martin, G.I.: Nucleated red blood cells: an update on the marker for fetal asphyxia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 175: 843–846, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Kouyoumdjian,A.: Velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord. Obstet. Gynecol. 56: 737–742, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Kraus, F.T.: Placenta: thrombosis of fetal stem vessels with fetal thrombotic vasculopathy and chronic villitis. Pediatr. Pathol. 16: 143–148, 1996.Google Scholar
  244. Kraus, F.T.: Cerebral palsy and thrombi in placental vessels of the fetus: Insights from litigation. Hum. Pathol. 28: 246–248, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Kreczy, A., Alge, A., Menardi, G., Gassner, I., Gschwendtner, A. and Mikuz, G.: Teratoma of the umbilical cord. Case report with review of the literature. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118: 934–937, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Kreibich, Dr.: Über eine grosse Urachuscyste bei einer 80 jährigen Frau. Zentralbl. Gynäkol. 69: 523–528, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Kreyberg, L.: A teratoma-like swelling in the umbilical cord possibly of acardiac nature. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 75: 109–112, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Kristiansen, F.V. and Nielsen, V.T.: Intra-uterine fetal death and thrombosis of the umbilical vessels. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 64: 331–334, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Krone, H.-A.: Die Bedeutung der Nidationsstörungen für die Pathologie der Embryonalentwicklung. Bibl. Microbiol. Fasc. 1:111–116, 1960. (Wiener Colloqium: Pränatale Infektionen, 1959.)Google Scholar
  250. Krone, H.-A.: Die Bedeutung der Plazenta für die Entstehung von Mißbildungen. Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 117: 393–397, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Krone, H.A., Jopp, H. and Schellerer, W.: Die Bedeutung anamnestischer Befunde für die verschiedenen Formen des Nabelschnuransatzes. Z. Geburtshilfe Gynäkol. 163: 205–213, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Laatikainen, T.J., Lehtonen, P.J. and Hesso, A.E.: Fetal sulfated and nonsulfated bile acids in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 92: 185–193, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Labarrere, C., Sebastiani, M., Siminovich, M., Torassa, E. and Althabe, O.: Absence of Wharton’s jelly around the umbilical arteries: an unusual cause of perinatal mortality. Placenta 6: 555–559, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Lachenmayer, L.: Adrenergic innervation of the umbilical vessels: light-and fluorescence microscopic studies. Z. Zell-forsch. 120: 120–136, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Lacro, R.V., Jones, K.L. and Benirschke, K.: The umbilical cord twist: origin, direction, and relevance. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 833–838, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Lang, I., Hartmann, M., Blaschitz, A., Dohr, G., Skofitsch, G. and Desoye, G. Immunohistochemical evidence for the heterogeneity of maternal and fetal vascular endothelial cells in human full-term placenta. Cell Tissue Res. 274: 211–218, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Lange, I.R., Manning, F.A., Morrison, I., Chamberlain, P.F. and Harman, C.R.: Cord prolapse: is antenatal diagnosis possible. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 151: 1083–1085, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Las Heras, J. and Haust, D.: Ultrastructure of fetal stem arteries of human placenta in normal pregnancy. Virchows Arch. 393: 133–144, 1981.Google Scholar
  259. Lauweryns, J.M., deBruyn, M., Peuskens, J. and Bourgeois, N.: Absence of intrinsic innervation of the human placenta. Experientia (Basel) 25: 432, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Learmont, J.G. and Poston, L.: Nitric oxide is involved in flow-induced dilation of isolated human small fetoplacental arteries. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174: 583–588, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. LeDonne, A.T. and McGowan, L.: Effect of an oxytocic on umbilical cord venous pressure. Obstet. Gynecol. 30: 103–107, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Lee, G.K., Chi, J.G. and Cha, K.S.: An unusual venous anomaly of the placenta. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 95: 48–51, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Lee, M.C.L. and Aterman, K.: An intestinal polyp of the umbilical cord. Am. J. Dis. Child. 116: 320–323, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Lee, S.T. and Hon, E.H.: Fetal hemodynamic response to umbil- ical cord compression. Obstet. Gynecol. 22: 553–562, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Leff, M.: Hemorrhage from a ruptured varicosity in the placenta causing the death of the fetus. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 22: 117–118, 1931.Google Scholar
  266. Lehman, R.E.: Umbilical cord prolapse following external cephalic version with tocolysis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 146: 963–964, 1983.Google Scholar
  267. Leinzinger, E.: Varixthrombose der Nabelschnur. Z. Geburtshilfe. Gynäkol. 171: 82–87, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Leinzinger, E.: Totaler Nabelschnurabriss intra partum bei Hydramnion. Zentralbl. Gynäkol. 94: 1233–1238, 1972.Google Scholar
  269. Lemtis, H.: Über eine seltene Nabelschnurmißbildung. Geburtsh. Frauenheilkd. 26: 986–993, 1966.Google Scholar
  270. Lemtis, H.: Über Aneurysmen im fetalen Gefäßapparat der menschlichen Plazenta. Arch. Gynäkol. 206: 330–347, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Lenke, R.R., Ashwood, E.R., Cyr, D.R., Gravett, M., Smith, J.R. and Stenchever, M.A.: Genetic amniocentesis: significance of intraamniotic bleeding and placental location. Obstet. Gynecol. 65: 798–801, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Leu, A.J. and Leu, H.J.: Spezielle Probleme bei der histologischen Altersbestimmung von Thromben und Emboli. Pathologe 10: 87–92, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Leung, A.K.C. and Robson, W.L.M.: Single umbilical artery: a report of 159 cases Am. J. Dis. Child. 143: 108–111, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Levy, H., Meier, P.R. and Makowski, E.L.: Umbilical cord prolapse. Obstet. Gynecol. 64: 499–502, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Lewinsky, R.M., Degani, S., Berger, H. and Spiegel, D.: Umbilical venous flow may be dependent on umbilical coiling (abstract 539). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174: 456, 1996.Google Scholar
  276. Loquet, P., Broughton-Pipkin, E, Symonds, E.M. and Rubin, P.C.: Blood velocity waveforms and placental vascular formation. Lancet 2: 1252–1253, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Ludwig, K: Ein weiterer Beitrag zum Bau der Gorilla-Placenta. Acta Anat. (Basel) 46: 304–310, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Macara, L.M., Kingdom, J.C.P. and Kaufmann, P.: Control of the fetoplacental circulation. Fetal Maternal Med. Rev. 5: 167–179, 1993.Google Scholar
  279. Maclean, M.R., Templeton, A.G.B. and McGrath, J.C.: The influence of endothelin-1 on human foeto-placental blood vessels: a comparison with 5-hydroxytryptamine. Br. J. Pharmacol. 106: 937–941, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Mäkilä, U.M., Jouppila, P, Kirkinen, P, Viinikka, L. and Ylikorkala, O.: Relation between umbilical prostacyclin production and blood-flow in the fetus. Lancet 1: 728–729, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Maher, J.T. and Conti, J.A.: A comparison of umbilical cord blood gas values between newborns with and without true knots. Obstet. Gynecol. 88: 863–866, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Mallard, E.C., Gunn, A.J., Williams, C.E., Johnston, B.M. and Gluckman, P.D.: Transient umbilical cord occlusion causes hippocampal damage in fetal sheep. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167: 1423–1430, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Malpas, P.: Length of the umbilical cord at term. Br. Med. J. 1: 673–674, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Malpas, P. and Symonds, E.M.: Observations on the structure of the human umbilical cord. Surg. Obstet. Gynecol. 123: 746–750, 1966.Google Scholar
  285. Manci, E.A., Ulmer, D.R., Nye, D.M., Shah, A. and Mvumbi, L.: Variations in normal umbilical cord length following birth (abstract 33). Mod. Pathol. 6:p6p, 1993.Google Scholar
  286. Marchetti, A.A.: A consideration of certain types of benign tumors of the placenta. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 68: 733–743, 1939.Google Scholar
  287. Marcianiak, E., Wilson, H.D. and Marlar, R.A.: Neonatal purpura fulminans: a genetic disorder related to the absence of protein C in blood. Blood 65: 15–20, 1985.Google Scholar
  288. Marco-Johnson, M.J., Marlar, R.A., Jacobson, L.J., Hays, T. and Warady, B.A.: Severe protein C deficiency in newborn infants. J. Pediatr. 113: 359–363, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Matheus, M. and Sala, M.A.: The importance of placental examination in newborns with single umbilical artery. Z. Geburtshilfe Perinatol. 184: 231–232, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. McCowan, L.M., Mullen, B.M. and Ritchie, K.: Umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms and the placental vascular bed. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 900–902, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. McCoshen, J.A., Tulloch, H.V. and Johnson, K.A.: Umbilical cord is the major source of prostaglandin E2 in the gestational sac during term labor. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160: 973–978, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. McCurdy, C., Anderson, C., Borjon, N., Brzechffa, P, Miller, H., McNamara, M., Newman, A. and Seeds, J.: Antenatal sono-graphic diagnosis of nuchal cord (abstract 329), Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 170: 366, 1994.Google Scholar
  293. McDermott, M. and Gillan, J.E.: Trophoblast basement membrane haemosiderosis in the placental lesion of fetal artery thrombosis: a marker for disturbance of maternofetal transfer? Placenta 16: 171–178, 1995a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. McDermott, M. and Gillan, J.E.: Chronic reduction in fetal blood flow is associated with placental infarction. Placenta 16: 165–170, 1995b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. McKay, D.G., Roby, C.C., Hertig, A.T. and Richardson, M.V.: Studies of the function of early human trophoblast. II. Preliminary observations on certain chemical constituents of chorionic and early amniotic fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 69: 735–741, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. McLennan, J.E.: Implications of the eccentricity of the human umbilical cord. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 101: 1124–1130, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. McLennan, H., Price, E., Urbanska, M., Craig, N. and Fraser, M.: Umbilical cord knots and encirclements. Aust. N. Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 28: 116–119, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Merttens, J.: Beiträge zur normalen und pathologischen Anatomie der menschlichen Placenta. Z. Geburtshilfe Gynäkol. 30: 1–97, 1894.Google Scholar
  299. Messer, R.H., Gomez, A.R. and Yambao, T.J.: Antepartum testing for vasa previa: current standard of care. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 156: 1459–1462, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Meyenburg, M.: Gibt es Veränderungen des Plazentasitzes im Bereich kaudaler Uterusabschnitte während der Schwangerschaft? Eine echographische Verlaufsstudie. Geburtsh. Frauenheilkd. 36: 715–721, 1976.Google Scholar
  301. Meyer, A.W.: On the structure of the human umbilical vesicle. Am. J. Anat. 3: 155–166, 1904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Meyer, W.J., Blumenthal, L., Cadkin, A., Gauthier, D.W. and Rotmensch, S.: Vasa previa: prenatal diagnosis with trans-vaginal color Doppler flow imaging. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 169: 1627–1629, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Meyer, W. W., Rumpelt, H.J., Yao, A.C. and Lind, J: Structure and closure mechanisms of the human umbilical artery. Eur. J. Pediatr. 128: 247–259, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Miller, M.E., Higginbottom, M. and Smith, D.A.: Short umbilical cord: its origin and relevance. Pediatrics 67: 618–621, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Mills, J.L., Harley, E.E. and Moessinger, A.C.: Standards for measuring umbilical cord length. Placenta 4: 423–426, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Mishriki, Y.Y., Vanyshelbaum, Y., Epstein, H. and Blanc, W: Hemangioma of the umbilical cord. Pediatr. Pathol. 7: 43–49, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Mitchell, A.P.B., Anderson, G.S. and Russell, J.K.: Perinatal death from foetal exsanguination. Br. Med. J. 1: 611–614, 1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Mochizuki, M., Maruo, T., Masuko, K. and Ohtsu, T.: Effects of smoking on fetoplacental-maternal system during pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 149: 413–420, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Moessinger, A.C., Blanc, W.A., Marone, P.A. and Polsen, D.C.: Umbilical cord length as an index of fetal activity: experimental study and clinical implications. Pediatr. Res. 16: 109–112, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Moessinger, A.C., Mills, J.L., Harley, E.E., Ramakrishnan, R., Berendes, H.W. and Blanc, W.A.: Umbilical cord length in Down’s syndrome. Am. J. Dis. Child. 140: 1276–1277, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Moise, K.J., Carpenter, R.J., Huhta, J.C. and Deter, R.L.: Umbilical cord hematoma secondary to in utero intravascular transfusion for Rh isoimmunization. Fetal Ther. 2: 65–70, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Moncrieff, D., Parker-Williams, J. and Chamberlain, G.: Placental drainage and fetomaternal transfusion. Lancet 2: 453, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Monie, I.W.: Velamentous insertion of cord in early pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 93: 276–281, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Monie, I.W. and Khemmani, M.: Absent and abnormal umbilical arteries. Teratology 7: 135–142, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Moore, R.D.: Mast cells of the human umbilical cord. Am. J. Pathol. 32: 1179–1183, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Murdoch, D.E.: Umbilical-cord doubling. Obstet. Gynecol. 27: 555–557, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Mvumbi, L., Manci, E.A., Ulmer, D. and Shah, A.K.: Glycogen levels in human term placental disks, umbilical cords, and membranes. Pediatr. Pathol. Lab. Med. 16: 597–605, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Myatt, L., Brockman, D.E., Eis, A.L.W. and Pollock, J.S.: Immunohistochemical localization of nitric oxide synthase in the human placenta. Placenta 14: 487–495, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Naaktgeboren, C. and van Wagtendonk, A.M.: Wahre Knoten in der Nabelschnur nebst Bemerkungen über Plazentophagie bei Menschenaffen. Z. Säugetierkd. 31: 376–382, 1966.Google Scholar
  320. Nadkarni, B.B.: Innervation of the human umbilical artery: an electron-microscope study. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 107: 303–312, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Naeye, R.L.: Umbilical cord length: clinical significance. J. Pediatr. 107: 278–281, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Naeye, R.L. and Tafari, N.: Noninfectious disorders of the placenta, fetal membranes and umbilical cord. In, Risk Factors in Pregnancy and Disease of the Fetus and Newborn. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 145–172, 1983.Google Scholar
  323. Nanaev, A.K., Shirinsky, V.P. and Birukov, K G. Immunofluorescent study of heterogeneity in smooth muscle cells of human fetal vessels using antibodies to myosin, desmin and vimentin. Cell Tissue Res. 266: 535–540, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Nanaev, A.K., Domogatsky, S.P. and Milovanov, A.P.: Immunohistochemical study of the extracellular matrix and intermediate filaments in the human umbilical cord. Placenta 13: A48, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Nanaev, A.K., Kohnen, G., Milovanov, A.P., Domogatsky, S.P. and Kaufmann, R: Stromal differentiation and architecture of the human umbilical cord. Placenta 18: 53–64, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Nelson, K.B. and Grether, J.K.: Potentially asphyxiating conditions and spastic cerebral palsy in infants of normal birth weight. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 179: 507–513, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Newman, R.S., Spear, G.S. and Kirschbaum, N.: Postmortem DNA diagnosis of factor V Leiden in a neonate with systemic thrombosis and probable antithrombin deficiency. Obstet. Gynecol. 92: 702–705, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Newton, M. and Moody, A.R.: Fetal and maternal blood in the human placenta. Obstet. Gynecol. 18: 305–308, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Nieder, J. and Link, M.: Ein Beitrag zur Pathologie der Nabelschnurgeschwülste. Z. Gynäkol. 92: 420–428, 1970.Google Scholar
  330. Nielsen, T.P., Nelson, R.M., Lee-Green, B., Lowe, P.N. and Reese, L.A.: Patent urachus complicating pregnancy: a review and report of a case. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 143: 61–68, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Mikolov, S.D. and Schiebler, T.H.: Über das fetale Gefäßsystem der reifen menschlichen Placenta. Z. Zellforsch. 139: 333–350, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Nöldeke, H.: Geburtskomplikationen bei Insertio velamentosa. Zentralbl. Gynäkol. 58: 351–356, 1934.Google Scholar
  333. Nolan, D.G., Martin, L.S., Natarajan, S. and Hume, R.F.: Fetal compromise associated with extreme fetal bile acidemia and maternal primary sclerosing cholangitis. Obstet. Gynecol. 84: 695–696, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Novack, A.H., Mueller, B. and Ochs, H.: Umbilical cord separa- tion in the newborn. Am. J. Dis. Child. 142: 220–223, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Obolensky, W: Durch Blasensprung bedingte Blutung aus dem Fötalkreislauf, ihre Erkennung und Verhütung. Gynaecologia 164: 279–282, 1967.Google Scholar
  336. Okatani, Y., Taniguchi, K. and Sagara, Y.: Amplifying effect of endothelin-1 on serotonin-induced vasoconstriction of human umbilical artery. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172: 1240–1245, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Omar, H.A., Figueroa, R., Omar, R.A. and Wolin, M.S.: Properties of an endogenous arachidonic acid-elicited relaxing mechanism in human placental vessels. Am. J. Obstetr. Gynecol. 167: 1064–1070, 1992.Google Scholar
  338. Ornoy, A., Crone, K. and Altshuler, G.: Pathological features of the placenta in fetal death. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 100: 367–371, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Otto, A.W.: Lehrbuch der pathologischen Anatomie des Menschen und der Thiere. Ruecker, Berlin, 1830.Google Scholar
  340. Ottow, B.: Interpositio velamentosa funiculi umbilicalis, eine bisher übersehene Nabelstranganomalie, ihre Entstehung und klinische Bedeutung. Arch. Gynäkol. 116: 176–199, 1922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Ottow, B.: Über die Insertio furcata der Nabelschnur. Arch. Gynäkol. 118: 378–382, 1923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M., Eilers, G.A.M. and deGroot, C.J.: The time of separation of the umbilical cord. Eur. J. Pediatr. 146: 387–389, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Painter, D. and Russell, R: Four-vessel umbilical cord associated with multiple congenital anomalies. Obstet. Gynecol. 50: 505–507, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Panigel, M.: Réactions vaso-motrices de l’arbre vasculaire foetal au cours de la perfusion de cotylédons placentaires isolés maintenus en survie. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 255: 3238–3240, 1962.Google Scholar
  345. Panizza, V.H., Alvarez, H. and Benedetti, W.L.: The in vitro contractility of the human placental chorial vessels. J. Reprod. Med. 26: 478–482, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Panter, K.R. and Hannah, M.E.: Umbilical cord prolapse: so far so good? Lancet 347: 74, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Papaloucas, A., Avgoustiniatos, J. and Paisios, R: Innervation of the umbilical cord in full term foetuses. IRCS Med. Sci. Anat. Hum. Biol. 3: 117–118, 1975.Google Scholar
  348. Parilla, B.V., Tamura, R.K., MacGregor, S.N., Geibel, L.J. and Sabbagha, R.E.: The clinical significance of a single umbilical artery as an isolated finding on prenatal ultrasound. Obstet. Gynecol. 85: 570–572, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Parry, E.W.: Some electron microscope observation on the mesenchymal structures of full-term umbilical cord. J. Anat. 107: 505–518, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Parry, E.W. and Abramovich, D.R.: Some observations on the surface layer of full-term human umbilical cord epithelium. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 77: 878–884, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Parry, E.W. and Abramovich, D.R.: The ultrastructure of human umbilical vessel endothelium from early pregnancy to full term. J. Anat. 111: 29–42, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Patel, D., Dawson, M., Kalyanam, R, Lungus, E., Weiss, H., Flaherty, E. and Nora, E.G.: Umbilical cord circumference at birth. Am. J. Dis. Child. 143: 638–639, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Pavlopoulos, EM., Konstantinidou, A.E., Agapitos, E., Christodoulou, C.N. and Davaris, R: Association of single umbilical artery with congenital malformations of vascular etiology. Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 1: 487–493, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Pearson, A.A. and Sauter, R.W.: The innervation of the umbilical vein in human embryos and fetuses. Am. J. Anat. 125: 345–352, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Pearson, A.A. and Sauter, R.W.: Nerve contributions to the pelvic plexus and the umbilical cord. Am. J. Anat. 128: 485–498, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Pekarske, S.L.: Placental pathology casebook. J. Perinatol. 15: 81–83, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Pent, D.: Vasa previa. Am. J. Obstet. Gyneco1. 134: 151–155, 1979.Google Scholar
  358. Perez-Aytes, A., Montero, L., Gomez, J. and Paya, A.: Single aberrant umbilical artery in a fetus with severe caudal defects: sirenomelia or caudal dysgenesis. Am. J. Med. Genet. 69: 409–412, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Perrin, E.V.D. and Bel, J.K-V.: Degeneration and calcification of the umbilical cord. Obstet. Gynecol. 26: 371–376, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Petrikovsky, B. and Kaplan, G.: Fetal grasping of the umbilical cord causing variable fetal heart rate decelerations. J. Clin. Ultrasound 21:642–644, 1993 (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172: 1071, 1995 ).Google Scholar
  361. Petrikovsky, B.M., Nochimson, D.J., Campbell, W.A. and Vintzileos, A.M.: Fetal jejunoileal atresia with persistent omphalomesenteric duct. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158: 173–175, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Philip, A.G.S.: Further observations on placental transfusion. Obstet. Gynecol. 42: 334–343, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Philip, A.G., Yee, A.B., Rosy, M., Surti, N., Tsamtsouris, A. and Ingall, D.: Placental transfusion as an intrauterine phenomenon in deliveries complicated by foetal distress. Br. Med. J. 1: 11–13, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Pinto, A., Sorrentino, R., Sorrentino, P., Guerritore, T., Miranda, L., Biondi, A. and Martinelli, R: Endothelial-derived relaxing factor released by endothelial cells of human umbilical vessels and its impairment in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 164: 507–513, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Poeschmann, R.E, Verheijen, R.H.M. and Dongen, EW.J.: Differential diagnosis and causes of non-immunological hydrops fetalis: a review. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 46: 223–231, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Potter, E.L.: Pathology of the Fetus and Infant. Yearbook, Chicago, 1961.Google Scholar
  367. Predanic, M., Kolli, J., Yousefzadeh, E and Pennisi, J.: Disparate blood flow patterns in parallel umbilical arteries. Obstet. Gynecol. 91: 757–760, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Priman, J.: A note on the anastomosis of the umbilical arteries. Anat. Rec. 134: 1–5, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Quek, S.P. and Tan, K.L.: Vasa previa. Aust. N. Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 12: 206–209, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Quinlan, D.K.: Coarctation in cord of twenty-one-week-old fetus, with atresia, fibrosis, secondary torsion. S. Afr. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 3: 1–2, 1965.Google Scholar
  371. Qureshi, F. and Jacques, S.M.: Marked segmental thinning of the umbilical cord vessels. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118: 826–830, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Radcliffe, P.A., Sindelair, P.J. and Zeit, P.R.: Vasa previa with marginal placenta previa of an accessory lobe: report of a case. Obstet. Gynecol. 16: 472–475, 1961.Google Scholar
  373. Raio, L., Ghezzi, F., Di Naro, E., Gomez, R., Saile, G. and Brühwiler, H.: The clinical significance of antenatal detection of discordant umbilical arteries. Obstet. Gynecol. 91: 86–91, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Ramirez, R, Haberman, S. and Baxi, L.: Significance of prenatal diagnosis of umbilical cord cyst in a fetus with trisomy 18. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 173: 955–957, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Rana, J., Ebert, G.A. and Kappy, K.A.: Adverse perinatal outcome in patients with an abnormal umbilical coiling index. Obstet. Gynecol. 85: 573–577, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Rath, W., Osterhage, G., Kuhn, W., Gröne, H.J. and Fuchs, E.: Visualization of 1251-endothelin-1 binding sites in human placenta and umbilical vessels. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 395: 209–213, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Ratten, G.J.: Spontaneous haematoma of the umbilical cord. Aust. N. Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 9: 125–126, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Rayburn, W.F., Beynen, A. and Brinkman, D.L.: Umbilical cord length and intrapartum complications. Obstet. Gynecol. 57: 450–452, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Reece, E.A., Pinter, E., Green, J., Mahoney, M.J., Naftolin, F. and Hobbins, J.C.: Significance of isolated yolk sac visualised by ultrasonography. Lancet 1: 269, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Reeves, T.B.: A double umbilicus. Anat. Rec. 10: 15–18, 1916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Reilly, F.D. and Russell, P.T.: Neurohistochemical evidence supporting an absence of adrenergic and cholinergic innervation in the human placenta and umbilical cord. Anat. Rec. 188: 277–286, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Reiss, H.E.: Umbilical cord. Br. Med. J. 2: 511, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Resta, R.G., Luthy, D.A. and Mahony, B.S.: Umbilical cord hemangioma associated with extremely high alphafetoprotein levels. Obstet. Gynecol. 72: 488–491, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Rey, E.: Effects of methyldopa on umbilical and placental artery flow velocity waveforms. Obstet. Gynecol. 80: 783–787, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Reynolds, S.R.M.: The proportion of Wharton’s jelly in the umbilical cord in relation to distention of the umbilical arteries and vein, with observations on the folds of Hoboken. Anat. Rec. 113: 365–377, 1952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Rhen, K. and Kinnunen, O.: Ante-partum rupture of the umbilical cord. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 41: 86–89, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Richards, D.S., Lutfi, E., Mullins, D., Sandler, D.L. and Raynor, B.D.: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with umbilical cord arteriovenous malformation. Obstet. Gynecol. 85: 860–862, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Rissmann, Dr.: Aneurysma der Nabelschnurarterie. Zentralbl. Gynäkol. 55: 550–551, 1931.Google Scholar
  389. Rizos, N., Doran, T.A., Miskin, M., Benzie, R.J. and Ford, J.A.: Natural history of placenta previa ascertained by diagnostic ultrasound. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 133: 287–291, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. Rizzo, G., Capponi, A., Rinaldo, D., Arduini, D. and Romanini, C.: Release of vasoactive agents during cordocentesis: Differences between normally grown and growth-restricted fetuses. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 175: 563–570, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Robaut, C., Mondon, F., Bandet, J., Ferre, F. and Cavero. I.: Regional distribution and pharmacological characterization of [125l]endothelin-1 binding sites in human fetal placental vessels. Placenta 12: 55–67, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Robertson, R.D., Rubinstein, L.M., Wolfson, W.L., Lebherz, T.B., Blanchard, J.B. and Crandall, B.F.: Constriction of the umbilical cord as a cause of fetal demise following midtrimester amniocentesis. J. Reprod. Med. 26: 325–327, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Robinson, L.K., Jones, K.L. and Benirschke, K.: The nature of structural defects associated with velamentous and marginal insertion of the umbilical cord. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 146: 191–193, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Röckelein, G. and Hey A.: Ultrastrukturelle Untersuchungen der Vakuolenbildung in arteriellen Choriongefäßen der reifen menschlichen Plazenta. Z. Geburshilfe Perinatol. 189: 65–68, 1985.Google Scholar
  395. Röckelein, G. and Scharl, A.: Scanning electron microscopic investigations of the human umbilical artery intima: a new conception on postnatal arterial closure mechanism. Virchows Arch. A 413: 555–561, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Röckelein, G., Kobras, G. and Becker, V.: Physiological and pathological morphology of the umbilical and placental circulation. Pathol. Res. Pract. 186: 187–196, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Rolschau, J.: The relationship between some disorders of the umbilical cord and intrauterine growth retardation. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. Suppl. 72: 15–21, 1978.Google Scholar
  398. Romero, R., Chervenak, F.A., Coustan, D., Berkowitz, R.L. and Hobbins, J.C.: Antenatal sonographic diagnosis of umbilical cord laceration. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 143: 719–720, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Ronchera-Oms, C., Hernandez, C. and Jimenez, N.V.: Antiseptic cord care reduces bacterial colonisation but delays cord detachment. Arch. Dis. Child. 70: F70, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Rotmensch, S., Liberati, M., Mittelmann, M. and Ben-Rafael, Z.: Activated protein C resistance and adverse pregnancy outcome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177: 170–173, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Rucker, M.P. and Tureman, G.R.: Vasa previa. Va. Med. Monthly 72: 202–207, 1945.Google Scholar
  402. Rust, W.: Seltsame Veränderungen an den Nabelschnurgefässen. Arch. Gynäkol. 165: 58–62, 1937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Ruvinski, E.D., Wiley, T.L., Morrison, J.C. and Blake, P.G.: In utero diagnosis of umbilical cord hematoma by ultrasonography. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 140: 833–834, 1981.Google Scholar
  404. Salas, S.P., Power, R.F., Singleton, A., Wharton, J., Polak, J.M. and Brown, J.: Heterogeneous binding sites for a-atrial natriuretic peptide in human umbilical cord and placenta. Am. J. Physiol. 261: R633 - R638, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. Sander, C.H.: Hemorrhagic endovasculitis and hemorrhagic villitis of the placenta. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 104: 371–373, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. Sander, C.M., Gilliland, D., Flynn, M.A. and Swart-Hills, L.A.: Risk factors for recurrence of hemorrhagic endovasculitis of the placenta. Obstet. Gynecol. 89: 569–576, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Schaefer, M., Laurichesse-Delmas, H. and Ville, Y.: The effect of nuchal cord on nuchal translucency measurement at 10–14 weeks. Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 11: 271–273, 1998.Google Scholar
  408. Scheffel, T. and Langanke, D.: Die Nabelschnurkomplikationen an der Universitäts-Frauenklinik von 1955 bis 1967. Zentralbi. Gynäkol. 92: 429–434, 1970.Google Scholar
  409. Schellong, G. and Pfeiffer, R.A.: Persistierender Ductus omphalo-mesentericus als Ursache ungewöhnlicher Komplikationen bei der Austauschtransfusion. Arch. Kinderheilkd. 175: 204–209, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Scheuner, G.: Über die Verankerung der Nabelschnur an der Plazenta. Morphol. Jahrb. 106: 73–89, 1964.Google Scholar
  411. Scheuner, G.: Über die mikroskopische Struktur der Insertio velamentosa. Zentralbi. Gynäkol. 87: 38–49, 1965.Google Scholar
  412. Schiebler, T.H. and Kaufmann, P.: Reife Plazenta. In, Die Plazenta des Menschen. V. Becker, T.H. Schiebler and E. Kubli, eds. Thieme, Stuttgart, 1981, pp. 51–100.Google Scholar
  413. Schiff, I., Driscoll, S.G. and Naftolin, F.: Calcification of the umbilical cord. Am. J. Obstetr. Gynecol. 126: 1046–1048, 1976.Google Scholar
  414. Schordania, J.: Über das Gefäßsystem der Nabelschnur. Z. Ges. Anat. 89: 696–726, 1929a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. Schordania, J.: Der architektonische Aufbau der Gefässe der menschlichen Nachgeburt und ihre Beziehungen zur Entwicklung der Frucht. Arch. Gynäkol. 135: 568–598, 1929b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Schreier, R. and Brown, S.: Hematoma of the umbilical cord: report of a case. Obstet. Gynecol. 20: 798–800, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. Schreiner, C.A. and Hoornbeek, F.K.: Developmental aspects of sirenomelia in the mouse. J. Morphol. 141: 345–358, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. Schwalbe, E.: Allgemeine Mißbildungslehre (Teratologie). Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1906.Google Scholar
  419. Scott, J.M. and Jordan, J.M.: Placental insufficiency and the small-for-dates baby. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 113: 823–832, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Scott, J.M. and Wilkinson, R.: Further studies on the umbilical cord and its water content. J. Clin. Pathol. 31: 944–948, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. Scott, J.S.: Placenta extrachorialis (placenta marginata and placenta circumvallata). J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 67: 907–918, 1960.Google Scholar
  422. Seeds, J.W., Chescheir, N.C., Bowes, W.A. and Owl-Smith, F.A.: Fetal death as a complication of intrauterine intravascular transfusion. Obstet. Gynecol. 74: 461–463, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. Seifert, D.B., Ferguson, J.E., Behrens, C.M., Zemel, S., Stevenson, D.K. and Ross, J.C.: Nonimmune hydrops fetalis in association with hemangioma of the umbilical cord. Obstet. Gynecol. 66: 283–286, 1985.Google Scholar
  424. Seligsohn, U., Berger, A., Abend, M., Rubin, L., Attias, D., Zivelin, A. and Rapaport, S.I.: Homozygous protein C deficiency manifested by massive venous thrombosis in the newborn. N. Engl. J. Med. 310: 559–562, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Sepúlveda, W.H., González, C., Cruz, M.A. and Rudolph, M.I.: Vasoconstrictive effect of bile acids on isolated human placental chorionic veins. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 42: 211–215, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Sexton, A.J., Turmaine, M., Cai, W. C). and Burnstock, G.: A study of the ultrastructure of developing human umbilical vessels. Anat. 188: 75–85, 1996.Google Scholar
  427. Shanklin, D.R.: The influence of placental lesions on the newborn infant. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 17: 25–42, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. Shaw, A. and Pierog, S.: “Ectopic” liver in the umbilicus: an unusual focus of infection in a newborn infant. Pediatrics 44: 448–450, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. Shen-Schwarz, S., Macpherson, T. and Mueller-Heubach, E.: Hemorrhagic endovasculitis of the placenta: incidence and clinical features in an unselected population. Pediatr. Pathol. 5: 112, 1986.Google Scholar
  430. Shen-Schwarz, S., Macpherson, T.A. and Mueller-Heubach, E.: The clinical significance of hemorrhagic endovasculitis of the placenta. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159: 48–51, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Shen-Schwarz, S., Smulian, J.C., Ananth, C.V., Lai-Ling, Y. and Vintzileos, A.M.: Placental cord insertion in relation to birth weight and placental weight discordancy in twin gestations (abstract 457). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176: S134, 1997a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. Shen-Schwarz, S., Ananth, C.V., Smulian, J.C. and Vintzleos, A.M.: Umbilical cord twist patterns in twin gestations (abstract 538). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176: S154, 1997b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Shepherd, J.T.: Bayliss response in the umbilical artery. Fed. Proc. 27: 1408–1409, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Shepherd, A.J., Richardson, C.J. and Brown, J.P.: Nuchal cords as a cause of neonatal anemia. Am. J. Dis. Child. 139: 71–73, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. Sibulkin, M.: A note on the bathtub vortex and the earth’s rotation. Am. Sci. 71: 352–353, 1983.Google Scholar
  436. Siddall, R.S.: Spontaneous rupture of the umbilical cord. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 10: 836–840, 1925.Google Scholar
  437. Siddiqi, T.A., Bendon, R., Schultz, D.M. and Miodovnik, M.: Umbilical artery aneurysm: prenatal diagnosis and manag-ment. Obstet. Gynecol. 80: 530–533, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. Silva, P. de, Stoskopf, C.G., Keegan, K.A. and Murata, Y.: Use of fetal scalp hematocrit in the diagnosis of severe hemorrhage from vasa previa. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 153: 307–308, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. Silver, R.K., Dooley, S.L., Tamura, R.K. and Depp, R.: Umbilical cord size and amniotic fluid volume in prolonged pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 716–720, 1987a.Google Scholar
  440. Silver, M.M., Yeger, H. and Lines, L.D.: Hemorrhagic endovasculitis-like lesion in placental organ culture. Lab. Invest. 56: 6P, 1987b.Google Scholar
  441. Silver, M.M., Yeger, H. and Lines, L.D.: Hemorrhagic endovasculitis-like lesion induced in placental organ culture. Hum. Pathol. 19: 251–256, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. Sinha, A.A.: Ultrastructure of human amnion and amniotic plaques of normal pregnancy. Z. Zellforsch. 122: 1–14, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Sinnathuray, T.A.: The nuchal cord incidence and significance. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 73: 226–231, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. Slijper, E.J.: Die Geburt der Säugetiere. In, Handbuch der Zoologie, Vol. 8. W. Kükenthal, ed., pp. 1–108. de Gruyter, Berlin, 1960.Google Scholar
  445. Smart, P.J.G.: Some observations on the vascular morphology of the foetal side of the human placenta. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 69: 929–933, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. Smith, D. and Majmudar, B.: Teratoma of the umbilical cord. Hum. Pathol. 16: 190–193, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. Snider, W: Placental pathology casebook. J. Perinatol. 17: 327–329, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. Soernes, T.: Umbilical cord encirclements and fetal growth restriction. Obstet. Gynecol. 86: 725–728, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Soernes, T. and Bakke, T.: The length of the human umbilical cord in vertex and breech presentations. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 154: 1086–1087, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. Spatz, W.B.: Nabelschnur-Längen bei Insektivoren and Primaten. Z. Säugetierkd. 33: 226–239, 1968.Google Scholar
  451. Spellacy, W.N., Gravem, H. and Fisch, R.O.: The umbilical cord complications of true knots, nuchal coils, and cords around the body. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 94: 1136–1142, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. Spiteri, M., Anh, N.H. and Panigel, M.: Ultrastructure du muscle lisse des artères du cordon ombilical humain. Pathol. Biol. 14: 348–357, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Spivack, M.: On the anatomy of the so-called ‘valves’ of umbilical vessels, with especial reference to the valvulae Hobokenii. Anat. Rec. 66: 127–148, 1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Spivack, M.: On the presence or absence of nerves in the umbilical blood vessels of man and guinea pig. Anat. Rec. 85: 85–109, 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Stevens, N.G. and Sander, C.H.: Placental hemorrhagic endovasculitis: risk factors and impact on pregnancy outcome. Lab. Invest. 50: 57A, 1984.Google Scholar
  456. Stevenson, R.E., Jones, K.L., Phelan, M.C., Jones, M.C., Barr, M., Clericuzio, C., Harley, R.A. and Benirschke, K.: Vascular steal: the pathogenetic mechanism producing sirenomelia and associated defects of the viscera and soft tissues. Pediatrics 78: 451–457, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. Strassmann, P.: Placenta praevia. Arch. Gynäkol. 67: 112–275, 1902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. Strong, T.H.: Factors that provide optimal umbilical protection during gestation. Contemp. Obstet. Gynecol. 42: 82–105, 1997.Google Scholar
  459. Strong, T.H., Elliott, J.P. and Radin, T.R.: Non-coiled umbilical blood vessels: a new marker for the fetus at risk. Obstet. Gynecol. 81: 409–411, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. Strong, T.H., Jarles, D.L., Vega, J.S. and Feldman, D.B.: The umbilical coiling index. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 170: 29–32, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. Sun, Y., Arbuckle, S., Hocking, G. and Billson, V.: Umbilical cord stricture and intrauterine fetal death. Pediatr. Pathol. Lab. Med. 15: 723–732, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Swanberg, H. and Wiqvist, N.: Rupture of the umbilical cord during pregnancy. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 30: 323–337, 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. Szécsi, K.: Beiträge zur spotanen Zerreißung der zu kurzen Nabelschnur. Zentralbl. Gynäkol. 77: 1024–1028, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. Takagi, T., Toda, T., Leszczynski, D. and Kummerow, E: Ultra-structure of aging human umbilical artery and vein. Acta Anat. (Basel) 119: 73–79, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. Takechi, K., Kuwabara, Y. and Mizuno, M.: Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of Wharton’s jelly umbilical cord cells. Placenta 14: 235–245, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Ten Berge, B.S.: Nervenelemente in Plazenta and Nabelschnur. Gynaecologia 156: 49–53, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. Tharakan, T., Baxi, L.V. and Diuguid, D.: Protein S deficiency in pregnancy: a case report. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 168: 141–142, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. Theuring. F.: Fibröse Obliterationen an Deckplatten-and Stammzottengefäßen der Placenta nach intrauterinem Fruchttod. Arch. Gynäkol. 206: 273–251, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. Thomas, J.: Untersuchungsergebnisse über die Aplasie einer Nabelarterie unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Zwillingsschwangerschaft. Geburtsh. Frauenheilkd. 21: 984–992, 1961.Google Scholar
  470. Thomas, J.: Die Entwicklung von Fetus and Placenta bei Nabelgefäßanomalien. Arch. Gynäkol. 198: 216–223, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Thomson, L.L. and Hoo, J.J.: Linear disruption of umbilical cord: a rare anomaly of the cord associated with acute fetal distress and perinatal death/pronounced psychomotor retardation. Am. J. Med. Genet. 62: 348–349, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. Thorarensen, O., Ryan, S., Hunter, J. and Younkin, D.P.: Factor V Leiden mutation: an unrecognized cause of hemiplegic cerebral palsy, neonatal stroke, and placental thrombosis. Ann. Neurol. 42: 372–375, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. Torpin, R.: Classification of human pregnancy based on depth of intrauterine implantation of ovum. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 66: 791–800, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. Torrey, W.E.: Vasa previa. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 63: 146–152, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. Tortora, M., Chervenak, EA., Mayden, K. and Hobbins, J.C.: Antenatal sonographic diagnosis of single umbilical artery. Obstet. Gynecol. 63: 693–696, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  476. Trudinger, B.J. and Cook, C.M.: Different umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms in one patient. Obstet. Gynecol. 71: 1019–1021, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. Trudinger, B.J., Stevens, D., Connelly, A., Hales, J.R.S., Alexander, G., Bradley, L., Fawcett, A. and Thompson, R.S.: Umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms and placental resistance: the effects of embolization of the umbilical circulation. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 1443–1448, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. Tuggle, A.Q. and Cook, W.A.: Laceration of a placental vein: an injury possibly inflicted by the fetus. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 131: 220–221, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. Uchide, K., Ueno, H., Inuyama, R., Murakami, K. and Terada, S.: Cord presentation with posterior placenta previa. Lancet 350: 1448, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. Ukeshima, A., Hayashi, Y. and Fujimoto, T.: Surface morphology of the human yolk sac: endoderm and mesothelium. Arch. Histol. Jpn. 49: 483–494, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. Ullberg, U., Sandstedt, B. and Lingman, G.: Hyrtl’s anastomosis occurrence, morphology and relation to umbilical artery blood flow waveforms and fetal growth (abstract 7). Placenta 15:A. 71, 1994.Google Scholar
  482. Ulm, M.R., Plöckinger, B., Pirich, C., Gryglewski, R.J. and Sinzinger, H.F.: Umbilical arteries of babies born to cigarette smokers generate less prostacyclin and contain less arginine and citrulline compared with those of babies born to control subjects. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172: 1485–1487, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. Uyanwah-Akpom, P.O. and Fox, H.: The clinical significance of marginal or velamentous insertion of the cord. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 84: 941–943, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. Vandriede, D.M. and Kammeraad, L.A.: Vasa previa: case report, review and presentation of a new diagnostic method. J. Reprod. Med. 26: 577–580, 1981.Google Scholar
  485. Vanhaesebrouck, P., Vanneste, K., de Praeter, C. and van Trappen, Y.: Tight nuchal cord and neonatal hypovolemic shock. Arch. Dis Child. 62: 1276–1277, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Vardi, P.: Placental transfusion: an attempt at physiological delivery. Lancet 2: 12–13, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Virgilio, L.A. and Spangler, D.B.: Fetal death secondary to constriction and torsion of the umbilical cord. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 102: 32–33, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  488. von Hayek, H.: Der funktionelle Bau der Nabelarterien and des Ductus Botalli. Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 105: 15–24, 1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Vu, T., Baldwin, V.J., Perrin, E.V.D.K. and Shanklin, D.R.: Major umbilical vessel rupture in utero. Pediatr. Pathol. 2: 494, 1984.Google Scholar
  490. Waidl, E.: Zur Genese and Klinik der Insertio velamentosa. Zentralbl. Gynäkol. 82: 1902–1906, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  491. Walker, C.W. and Pye, B.G.: The length of the umbilical cord: a statistical report. Br. Med. J. 1: 546–548, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Walker, M.C., Garner, P.R., Keely, E.J., Rock, G.A. and Reis, M.D.: Changes in activated protein C resistance during normal pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177: 162–169, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. Walsh, S.Z.: Maternal effects of early and late clamping of the umbilical cord. Lancet 1: 996–997, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. Walz, W.: Über das Ödem der Nabelschnur. Zentralbl. Gynäkol. 69: 144–148, 1947.Google Scholar
  495. Weber, J.: Constriction of the umbilical cord as a cause of foetal death. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 42: 259–268, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. Weeks, J.W., Smith, A., Hogue, T., Spinnato, J.A. and Gall, S.A.: The umbilical coiling index and feto-placental characteristics (abstract 211). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 172: 32v, 1995.Google Scholar
  497. Weissman, A., Jakobi, P., Bronshtein, M. and Goldstein, I.: Sono-graphic measurements of the umbilical cord and vessels during normal pregnancies. J. Ultrasound Med. 13: 11–14, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. Wentworth, P.: Some anomalies of the foetal vessels of the human placenta. J. Anat. 99: 273–282, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  499. White, R.P.: Pharmacodynamic study of maturation and closure of human umbilical arteries. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 160: 229–237, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. Whitwell, K.E.: Morphology and pathology of the equine umbilical cord. J. Reprod. Fertil. (Suppl.) 23: 599–603, 1975.Google Scholar
  501. Widholm, O. and Nieminen, U.: Prolapse of umbilical cord. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. 42: 21–29, 1963.Google Scholar
  502. Wigger, H.J., Kiu, T.W., Moessinger, A.C., Marboe, C.C. and Blanc, W.A.: Effect of cigarette smoking on the ultrastructure of the placenta. Lab. Invest. 50: 14P, 1984.Google Scholar
  503. Williams, J.H. and Benirschke, K.: Chorionic vessel thrombosis: a possible etiology of neonatal purpura. J. Reprod. Med. 20: 285–288, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  504. Williams, J., Katzman, G.H. and Kripke, S.S.: Neck compression by nuchal cord. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 140: 345–346, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. Wilson, R.D., Magee, J.F., Sorensen, P.H.B. and Johnson, A.: In utero decompression of umbilical cord angiomyxoma followed by vaginal delivery. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 171: 1383–1385, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. Winter, R.: Die Rolle regressiver Veränderungen der Plazenta bei der sogenannten Plazentamigration. Geburtsh. Frauenheilkd. 38: 1093–1098, 1978.Google Scholar
  507. Winters, R.H.: Unique vascular relationship in human umbilical cord. Nature (Lond.) 226: 656, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. Wolf, P.L., Jones, K.L., Longway, S.R., Benirschke, K. and Bloor, C.: Prenatal death from acute myocardial infarction and cardiac tamponade due to embolus from the placenta. Am. Heart J. 109: 603–605, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. Wolfman, W.L., Purohit, D.M. and Self, S.E.: Umbilical vein thrombosis at 32 weeks’ gestation with delivery of a living infant. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 148: 468–470, 1983.Google Scholar
  510. Woods, D.L. and Malan, A.F.: The site of umbilical cord insertion and birth weight. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 85: 332–333, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. Yamada, K. and Shimizu, S.: Concanavalin a-peroxidasediaminobenzidine (Con A-PO-DAB)-alcian blue (AB): a reliable method for dual staining of complex carbohydrates. Histochemistry 47: 159–169, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. Yang, H.Y., Shum, A.Y.C., Ng, H.T. and Chen, C.F.: Effect of ethanol on human umbilical artery and vein in vitro. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 21: 131–135, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. Yao, A.C. and Lind, J.: Placental transfusion: review. Am. J. Dis. Child. 127: 128–141, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. Yao, A.C. and Lind, J.: Placental transfusion. A Clinical and Physiological Study. Thomas, Springfield, 1982.Google Scholar
  515. Yao, A.C., Hirvensalo, M. and Lind, J.: Placental transfusion-rate and uterine clamping. Lancet 1: 380–383, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Yao, A.C., Moinian, M. and Lind, J.: Distribution of blood between infant and placenta after birth. Lancet 2: 871–873, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  517. Yao, A.C., Lind, J. and Lu, T.: Closure of the human umbilical artery: a physiological demonstration of Burton’s theory. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 7: 365–368, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. Yavner, D.L. and Redline, R.W.: Angiomyxoma of the umbilical cord with massive cystic degeneration of Wharton’s jelly. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 113: 935–937, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  519. Young, A.: The primate umbilical cord with special reference to the transverse communicating artery. J. Hum. Evol. 1: 345–359, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  520. Young, G.B.: The peripatetic placenta. Radiology 128: 183–188, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
  • Peter Kaufmann
    • 2
  1. 1.University Medical CenterUniversity of California, San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen FakultätRheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule AachenAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations