Selected Disorders of the Digestive System and Nutrition
Medical treatment of cholelithiasis is a viable option for carefully selected patients. Although there are three common types of gallstone, in the United States cholesterol stones are the most common encountered and are the most responsive to medical treatment. Medical therapies presently available include the use of chenodeoxycholate (Chenodiol), ursodeoxycholate (Actigall), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) dissolution. Chenodeoxycholate was first reported to effectively dissolve gallstones in 1937.1 After administration there is a decrease in cholesterol secretion with desaturation of the cholesterol in the bile. Side effects include diarrhea and abnormalities of liver enzymes. Urodeoxycholate is a bile salt of the bear and appears to work by forming a liquid crystalline phase in the bile; it is associated with fewer side effects than chenodeoxycholate.2
KeywordsFood Allergy Food Poisoning Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Lactose Intolerance Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
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