Diabetes Mellitus

  • Charles Kent Smith
  • John P. Sheehan
  • Margaret M. Ulchaker

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 12 million to 15 million individuals in the United States, incurring an immense cost in terms of morbidity and premature death. The most common form is type II, or adult-onset, DM, which has racial preponderances, female predilection, and strong associations with obesity. There was a revolution in DM management during the 1980s with the advent of home blood glucose monitoring devices, human insulin, and reliable laboratory markers of long-term glycemic control. Additionally, published national and international standards of care have been disseminated directly to patients and physicians, heightening the importance of adequate care and glycwmic control to minimize devastating long-term complications.12 Table 122.1 describes diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and gestational diabetes.

Keywords

Insulin Resistance Glycemic Control Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Insulin Therapy Diabetes Mellitus Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Clinical practice recommendations: 1990–1991. Diabetes Care 1991;14Suppl 2:1–81.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    The European patient’s charter. Diabetic Med 1991;8:782–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Landin-Olsson M, Nilsson KO, Lernmark A, Sunkvist G. Islet cell antibodies and fasting C-peptide predict insulin requirement at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetalogia 1990;33:561–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zeigler AG, Herskowitz RD, Jackson RA, Soeldner JS, Eisenbarth GS. Predicting type I diabetes. Diabetes Care 1990;13:762–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Keller RJ, Eisenbarth GS, Jackson RA. Insulin prophylaxis in individuals at high risk of type I diabetes. N Engl J Med 1993;341 : 8850:927–8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Helmrich SP, Ragland DR, Leung RW, Paffenbarger RS. Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1991;325:147–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    DeFronzo RA. The triumverate: B-cell, muscle, and liver: a collusion responsible for NIDDM. Diabetes 1988;37:667–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Erikkson J, Franssila-Kallunki A, Ekstrand A. Early metabolic defects in persons at increased risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1989;321:337–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    DeFronzo RA, Bonadonna RC, Ferrannini E. Pathogenesis of NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1992;15:318–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clark PM, Hales CN. Measurement of insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes: problems and pitfalls. Diabetic Med 1992;9:503–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bjornstorp P. Metabolic implications of body fat distribution. Diabetes Care 1991;14:1132–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferrannini E, Buzzigoli G, Bonadonna B, et al. Insulin resistance in essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 1987;317:350–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zavaroni I, Bonora E, Pagliara M, et al. Risk factors for coronary artery disease in healthy persons with hyperinsulinemia and normal glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 1989;320:703–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kern TS, Engerman RL. Arrest of glomerulonephropathy in diabetic dogs by improved glycemic control. Diabetalogia 1990;33:522–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Self-monitoring of blood glucose: American Diabetes Association Consensus Statement. Diabetes Care 1992;15:56–61.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Viberti GC. Etiology and prognostic significance of albuminuria in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1988;11:840–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deckert T, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Borch-Johnson K, Jensen T, Kofoed-Gnevoldsen A. Albuminuria reflects widespread vascular damage: the Steno hypothesis. Diabetologia 1989;32:219–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marshall SM. Screening for microalbuminuria: which measurement? Diabetic Med 1991;8:706–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hamwi GL. Changing dietary concepts in therapy. In: Danowski TS, editor. Diabetes mellitus: diagnosis and treatment. New York: American Diabetes Association, 1964:73–8.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wood FC, Bierman EL. Is diet the cornerstone in management of diabetes? N Engl J Med 1986:1244–7.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zehrer C, Hansen R, Bantl J. Reducing blood glucose variability by use of abdominal injection sites. Diabetes Educator 1990; 16: 474–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Skyler JS, Skyler DL, Seigier DE, O’Sullivan M. Algorithms for adjustment of insulin dosage by patients who monitor blood glucose. Diabetes Care 1981;4:311–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frykberg RG. Management of diabetic foot problems (Joslin Clinic). Philadelphia: Saunders, 1984.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Singerman LJ. Early-treatment diabetic retinopathy study: good news for diabetic patients and health care professionals [editorial]. Diabetes Care 1986;9:426–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Feldt-Rasmussen B, Mathiesen ER, Deckert T. Effect of two years of strict metabolic control on the progression of incipient nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes. Lancet 1986;2:1300–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tuttle KR, Bruton JL, Perusek MC, Lancaster JL, Kopp DT, DeFronzo RA. Effect of strict glycemic control on renal enlarge- ment in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1626–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:36–69.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Role of cardiovascular risk factors in prevention and treatment of macrovascular disease in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1992;15:68–74.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Flynn MD, Tooke JE. Aetiology of diabetic foot ulceration: a role for the microcirculation? Diabetic Med 1992;9:320–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Skyler JS. Insulin treatment: therapy for diabetes mellitus and related disorders. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association, 1991:127–37.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bhatia V, Wolfsdorf JI. Severe hypoglycemia in youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: frequency and causative factors. Pediatrics 1991;88:1187–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Groop L, Luzi L, Melander A, et al. Different effects of glyburide and glipizide on insulin secretion and hepatic glucose production in normal and NIDDM subjects. Diabetes 1987;36:1320–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Halter JB, Ward WK, Best JD, Pfeifer MA. Glucose regulation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: interaction between pancreatic islets and the liver. Am J Med 1985;79 Suppl:6–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stout RW. Insulin and atheroma: 20-yr perspective. Diabetes Care 1990;13:631–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fontbonne AM, Eschwege EM. Insulin and cardiovascular disease: Paris Prospective Study. Diabetes Care 1991;14:461–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Groop LC, Widèn E, Ekstrand A, et al. Morning or bedtime NPH insulin combined with sulfonylureas in treatment of NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1992;15:831–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Proceedings of the Third International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes 1991;40 Suppl 2:1–201.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM. Pregnancy in the diabetic woman: guidelines for a successful outcome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1992;33:433–56.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kaufmann RC, Amankwah KS, Woodrum J. Development of diabetes in previous gestational diabetic [abstract]. Diabetes 1991;40:137A.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kaufmann RC, Amankwah KS, Woodrum J. Serum lipids in former gestational diabetics, [abstract]. Diabetes 1991;40:192A.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kozak GP, Rolla AR. Diabetic comas. In: Kozak GP, editor. Clinical diabetes mellitus. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1982:109–45.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Siperstein MD. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 1992;33:415–32.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles Kent Smith
  • John P. Sheehan
  • Margaret M. Ulchaker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations