Vasculitides and Angiocentric Lymphoproliferative Processes

  • Mario J. Saldana

Abstract

Various compartments of the lung may act as focal points of disease. This chapter* presents an assortment of diseases that have vascular involvement as their main focus. The type of involvement may vary, but most of those to be discussed present grossly and radiographically as smaller nodules, solitary larger masses, and sometimes as multiple masses or regular infiltrates. Microscopically, these show the following: (1) involvement of pulmonary arteries and veins by a cellular infiltrate of varied composition and significance, frequently progressing to vascular destruction, thrombosis, and obliteration; (2) parenchymal cellular infiltrates identical to and continuous with those involving vessels, commonly associated with extensive necrosis to the point of cavitation; (3) an accompanying, nonspecific reaction of the adjacent lung tissue including bronchiolitis obliterans, endogenous lipid pneumonia, and fibrosis. Although extrapulmonary involvement is common, the pulmonary picture usually remains the central feature in these disorders.

Keywords

Giant Cell Arteritis Polyarteritis Nodosa Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis Hypersensitivity Vasculitis Pulmonary Vasculitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Liebow AA. Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1973; 108: 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Katzenstein A. The histologic spectrum and differential diagnosis of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in the lung. In: Fenoglio CM, Wolff M, eds. Progress in surgical pathology, Vol. II. New York: Masson, 1980: 42–70.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cupps TR, Fauci AS. The vasculitides. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1981.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Katzenstein ALA, Askin FB. Angiitis and granulomatosis. In: Surgical pathology of non-neoplastic lung disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1982: 166–202.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Israel HL. Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. In: Fishman AP, ed. Update: pulmonary diseases and disorders. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982: 243–255.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Churg A. Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis revisited. Hum Pathol 1983; 14: 868–883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leavitt RY, Fauci CS. Pulmonary vasculites. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986; 134: 146–166.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jaffe ES. Post-thymic lymphoid neoplasia. In: Jaffe ES, ed. Surgical pathology of the lymph nodes and related organs. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1985: 218–248.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Costa J, Martin SE. Pulmonary lymphoreticular disorders. In: Jaffe ES, ed. Surgical pathology of the lymph nodes and related organs. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1985: 282–297.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alarcon-Segovia D. The necrotizing vasculitis: a new pathogenic classification. Med Clin North Am 1977; 61: 241–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Katz P. The spectrum of vasculitis: clinical, pathologic, immunologic and therapeutic considerations. Ann Intern Med 1978; 89: 660–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    De Remee RA, Weiland LH, McDonald TJ. Respiratory vasculitis. Mayo Clin Proc 1980; 55: 492–498.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saldana MJ. Pulmonary vasculitides and related granulomatosis. Semin Respir Med 1982; 4: 113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Edwards CW. Vasculitis and granulomatosis of the respiratory tract. Thorax 1982; 37: 81–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fulmer JD, Kaltreider HB. The pulmonary vasculides. Chest 1982; 82: 615–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    An international colloquy on Wegener’s granulomatosis and other vasculitides of the respiratory tract. May 79, 1986. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  17. a. Colby TV. Pulmonary hemorrhage in Wegener’s granulomatosis.Google Scholar
  18. b. Weiss MA, Crissman JD. Renal pathology of Wegener’s granulomatosis.Google Scholar
  19. c. Woodworth T, Abuelo JG, Austin H, Esparza A. Severe glomerulonephritis with late emergence of typical Wegener’s granulomatosis: Report of four cases and review of the literature.Google Scholar
  20. d. Weiner SR, Paulus HE. Wegener’s granulomatosis in the elderly.Google Scholar
  21. e. Israel HL. Wegener’s granulomatosis reconsidered: Liebow was right.Google Scholar
  22. f. Rasmussen N, Wiik A, Permin H, Cattegat Study Group of Wegener’s Granulomatosis. Detection and clinical implications of anti-neutrophil-cytoplasm-antibodies (ANCA) in Wegener’s granulomatosis.Google Scholar
  23. g. Gross WL, Ludemann G, Kiefer B, Niedermayer W, Lehmann H. Autoantibodies against neutrophils: A new marker for Wegener’s granulomatosis?Google Scholar
  24. h. Andrassy K, Koderisch J, Darai G, Ritz E. Diagnostic significance of SSA(RO)/SSB(LA) antibodies in Wegener’s granulomatosis.Google Scholar
  25. i. Yousem SA, Hochholzer L, Rao S, McCarthy MJ. Overlap syndrome: Wegener’s granulomatosis and ChurgStrauss disease.Google Scholar
  26. j. Saldana MJ, Roberts A, Mitrani AA, Ferreiro JE, Kramer HJ. Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis followed by disseminated systemic vasculitis.Google Scholar
  27. k. Jaffe ES, Liford EH, Margolick J, Longo D, Grossman J, Fauci A. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis and angiocentric lymphoma: A spectrum of post-thymic T cell proliferations.Google Scholar
  28. l. Gracey DR, Unni KK, Weiland LH. Benign lymphocytic angiitis and granulomatosis: Observations in three patients.Google Scholar
  29. m. Saldana MJ, Israel HL. Benign lymphocytic angiitis and granulomatosis: Does it exist?Google Scholar
  30. 17.
    Wegener F. Über generalisierte, septische Gefässerkrankungen. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 1936; 29: 202–210.Google Scholar
  31. 18.
    Wegener F. Über eine eigenartige rhinogene Granulomatose mit besonderer Beteiligung des Arteriensystems und der Nieren. Beitr Pathol Anat 1939; 102: 36–68.Google Scholar
  32. 19.
    Klinger H. Grenzformen der Periarteritis nodosa. Frankfurt Z Pathol 1931; 42: 455–482.Google Scholar
  33. 20.
    Rössle R. Zum Formenkreis der rheumatischen Gewebsveränderungen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der rheumatischen Gefässentzündungen. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 1933; 288: 780–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 21.
    Rössle R. Über die Veränderungen der Schleimhäute der Nebenhöhlen des Kopfes durch rheumatische Gefässentzündungen. Arch Ohr Nas u Kehlk Heilk 1937; 142: 193–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 22.
    Godman GC, Churg J. Wegener’s granulomatosis: Pathology and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1954; 58: 533–553.Google Scholar
  36. 23.
    Fahey JL, Leonard E, Churg J, Godman G. Wegener’s granulomatosis. Am J Med 1954; 17: 168–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 24.
    Fauci AS, Wolff SM. Wegener’s granulomatosis: studies in eighteen patients and a review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1973; 52: 534–561.Google Scholar
  38. 25.
    Wolff SM, Fauci AD, Horn RG, Dale OG. Wegener’s granulomatosis. Ann Intern Med 1974; 81: 513–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 26.
    De Remee RA, McDonald TJ, Harrison EG, Coles DT. Wegener’s granulomatosis. Anatomical correlates, a proposed classification. Mayo Clin Proc 1976; 51: 777781.Google Scholar
  40. 27.
    McDonald TJ, De Remee RA. Wegener’s granulomatosis. Laryngoscope 1983; 93: 220–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 28.
    Saldana MJ, Patchefsky AS, Israel HL, Atkinson GN. Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. The relationship between histological features, organ involvement and response to treatment. Hum Pathol 1977; 8: 391–409. 467Google Scholar
  42. 29.
    Hensley MJ, Feldman NT, Lazarus JM, Galvaneti EG. Diffuse progressive pulmonary hemorrhage and rapidly progressive renal failure. An uncommon presentation of Wegener’s granulomatosis. Am J Med 1979; 66: 894898.Google Scholar
  43. 30.
    Leatherman JW, Davies SF, Hoidal JR. Alveolar hemorrhage syndromes: diffuse microvascular lung hemorrhage in immune and idiopathic disorders. Medicine (Baltimore) 1984; 63: 343–361.Google Scholar
  44. 31.
    Haworth SJ, Savage CO, Carr D, Hughes JMB, Rees AJ. Pulmonary haemorrhage complicating Wegener’s granulomatous and microscopic polyarteritis. Br Med J 1985; 290: 1775–1778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 32.
    Horn RG, Fauci AS, Rosenthal AS, Wolff SM. Renal biopsy pathology in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Am J Pathol 1974; 74: 423–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 33.
    Halstead LA, Karmody CS, Wolff SM. Presentation of Wegener’s granulomatosis in young patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1986; 94: 368–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 34.
    Carrington CB, Liebow AA. Limited forms of angiitis and granulomatosis of Wegener’s type. Am J Med 1966; 41: 497–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 35.
    Cassan SM, Coles OT, Harrison EG Jr. The concept of limited forms of Wegener’s granulomatosis. Am J Med 1970; 49: 366–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 36.
    Blennerhassett J, Borrie J, Licter I, Taylor A. Localized pulmonary Wegener’s granuloma simulating lung cancer: report of four cases. Thorax 1976; 31: 576–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 37.
    Spigel GT, Krall RA, Hilal A. Limited Wegener’s granulomatosis. Cutis 1983; 32: 41–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 38.
    Howell SB, Epstein WV. Circulating immunoglobulin complexes in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Am j Med 1976; 60: 259–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 39.
    Donald K, Edwards R, McEvoy J. An ultrastructural study of the pathogenesis of tissue injury in limited Wegener’s granulomatosis. Pathology 1976; 8: 161–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 40.
    van der Woude FJ, Rasmussen N, Lobatto S, et al. Autoantibodies against neutrophils and monocytes: tool for diagnosis and marker of disease activity in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Lancet 1985; 1: 425–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 41.
    Gross WL, Lüdemann G, Kiefer G, Lehmann H. Anticytoplasmic antibodies in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Lancet 1986; 1: 806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 42.
    Andrassy K, Darai G, Koderisch J, Ritz E. SSA(Ro) antibodies in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Klin Wochenschr 1983; 61: 873–875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 43.
    Israel HL, Patchefsky AS. Treatment of Wegener’s granulomatosis of lung. Am J Med 1975; 58: 671–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 44.
    Fauci AS, Wolff SM, Johnson JS. Effect of cyclophosphamide upon the immune response in Wegener’s granulomatosis. N Engl J Med 1971; 285: 1493–1496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 45.
    Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Katz P, Wolff SM. Wegener’s granulomatosis: Prospective clinical and therapeutic experience with 85 patients for 21 years. Ann Intern Med 1983; 98: 76–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 46.
    Ambrus JL, Fauci AS. Diffuse histiocytic lymphoma in a patient treated with cyclophosphamide for Wegener’s granulomatosis. Am J Med 1984; 76: 745–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 47.
    De Remee RA, McDonald TJ, Weiland LH. Wegener’s granulomatosis: observations on treatment with antimicrobial agents. Mayo Clin Proc 1985; 60: 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 48.
    Churg J, Strauss L. Allergic granulomatosis, allergic angiitis and periarteritis nodosa. Am J Pathol 1951; 27: 277–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 49.
    Strauss L, Churg J, Zak FG. Cutaneous lesions of allergic granulomatosis: a histopathologic study. J Invest Dermatol 1951; 17: 349–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 50.
    Rose GA, Spencer H. Polyarteritis 1957; 26: 43–81.Google Scholar
  64. 51.
    Chumbley LC, Harrison EG, De Remee RA. Allergic granulomatosis and angiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Report and analysis of 30 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 1977; 52: 477–484.Google Scholar
  65. 52.
    Koss MN, Antonovych T, Hochholzer L. Allergic granulomatous (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Pulmonary and renal morphologic findings. Am J Surg Pathol 1981; 5: 21–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 53.
    Finan MC, Winkelmann RK. The cutaneous extravascular necrotizing granuloma (Churg-Strauss granuloma) and systemic disease: A review of 27 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 1983; 62: 142–158.Google Scholar
  67. 54.
    Lanham JG, Elkon KB, Pusey CD, Hughes GR. Systemic vasculitis with asthma and eosinophilia: A clinical approach to the Cnurg-Strauss syndrome. Medicine (Baltimore) 1984; 63: 65–81.Google Scholar
  68. 55.
    Jessurun J, Azevedo M, Saldana MJ. Allergic angiitis and granulomatosis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Hum Pathol 1986; 17: 637–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 56.
    Saldana MJ. Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis: clinico-pathologic observations in 24 patients. Lab Invest (abstr) 1978; 38: 34.Google Scholar
  70. 57.
    Churg A, Carrington CB, Gupta R. Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis. Chest 1979; 76: 406–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 58.
    Koss MN, Hochholzer L, Feigin OS, Garancis TC, Ward PA. Necrotizing sarcoid-like granulomatosis: clinical, pathologic and immunopathologic findings. Hum Pathol 1980; 11: 510–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 59.
    Rolfes DB, Weiss MA, Sanders MA. Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis with suppurative features. Am J Clin Pathol 1984; 82: 602–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 60.
    Beach RC, Corrin B, Scopes TW, Graham E. Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis with neurologic lesions in a child. J Pediatr 1980; 97: 950–953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 61.
    Singh N, Cole S, Krause PJ, Conway M, Garcia L. Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis with extrapulmonary involvement. Clinical, pathologic, ultrastructural, and immunologic features. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981; 124: 189192.Google Scholar
  75. 62.
    Isenberg JI, Goldstein H, Korn AR, Ozeran RS, Rosen V. Pulmonary vasculitis-an uncommon complication of ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med 1968; 279: 1376–1377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 63.
    Forrest JA, Shearman DJC. Pulmonary vasculitis and ulcerative colitis. Am J Dig Dis 1975; 20: 482–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 64.
    Liebow AA, Carrington CRB, Friedman PJ. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Hum Pathol 1972; 3: 457–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 65.
    Katzenstein A, Carrington CB, Liebow AA. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. A clinicopathologic study of 152 cases. Cancer 1979; 43: 360–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 66.
    Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Costa J, Katz P, Wolff SM. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis: prospective clinical and therapeutic experience over 10 years. N Engl J Med 1982; 306: 68–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 67.
    Israel HL, Patchefsky AS, Saldana MJ. Wegener’s granulomatosis, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, and benign lymphocytic angiitis and granulomatosis of lung. Recognition and treatment. Ann Intern Med 1977; 87: 691–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 68.
    Levy A, Avidor I, Spitzer S, et al. Massive hemoptysis as a presenting sign of benign lymphocytic angiitis and granulomatosis. Eur J Respir Dis 1984; 65: 311–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 69.
    Weiss MA, Rolfes DB, Alviid MA, Cohen LJ. Benign lymphocytic angiitis and granulomatosis: a case report with evidence of autoimmune etiology. Am J Clin Pathol 1984; 81: 110–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 70.
    Chen KTK. Abdominal form of lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Hum Pathol 1977; 8: 99–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 71.
    Schmidt BJ, Meagher-Villemure K, Del-Carpio J. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis with isolated involvement of the brain. Ann Neurol 1984; 15: 478–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 72.
    Weisbrot IM. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the lung, associated with a long history of benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the salivary glands and lymphoid interstitial pneumonias. Am J Clin Pathol 1976; 66: 79 2801.Google Scholar
  86. 73.
    Shen SC, Heuser ET, Landing BH, Siegel SE, Cohen SR. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis-like lesions in a child with leukemia in remission. Hum Pathol 1981; 12: 276–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 74.
    Hammar SP, Gortner D, Sumida S, Bockus D. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Association with retroperitoneal fibrosis and evidence of impaired cell mediated immunity. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977; 115: 1045–1050.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 75.
    Hammar S, Mennemeyer R. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis in a renal transplant recipient. Hum Pathol 1976; 9: 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 76.
    Minars N, Kay S, Escobar MR. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the skin. Arch Dermatol 1975; 111: 493–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 77.
    James W, Odom R, Katzenstein A. The cutaneous manifestations of lymphomatoid granulomatosis: report of forty-four patients and a review of the literature. Arch Dermatol 1981; 117: 196–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 78.
    Wood ML, Harrington CI, Slater DN, Rooney N, Clark A. Cutaneous lymphomatoid granulomatosis: A rare cause of recurrent skin ulceration. Br J Dermatol 1984; 110: 619–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 79.
    De Remee RA, Weiland LH, McDonald TJ. Polymorphic reticulosis, lymphomatoid granulomatosis: Two diseases or one? Mayo Clin Proc 1978; 53: 634–640.Google Scholar
  93. 80.
    Crissman JD. Midline malignant reticulosis and lymphomatoid granulomatosis. A case report. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1979; 103: 561–564.Google Scholar
  94. 81.
    Costa J, Delacrétaz F. The midline granuloma syndrome. Pathol Annu 1986; 21 (1): 159–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 82.
    Sordillo PP, Epremian B, Koziner B, Lacher M, Lieberman P. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. An analysis of-clinical and immunologic characteristics. Cancer 1982; 49: 2070–2076.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 83.
    Nonomura A, Fujitsugu M, Nakamura Y, Kawashima Y, Hirone T, Ohta G. T cell lymphoma presenting clinical and morphological features resembling polymorphic reticulosis and lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Acta Pathol Jpn 1983; 33: 1289–1301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 84.
    Minase T, Ogasawara M, Kikuchi T, et al. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Light microscopic, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study. Acta Pathol Jpn 1985; 35: 711–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 85.
    Petras RE, Tubbo RR, Gephardt GN, Sebek BA, Golish JA, Weick JK. T lymphocyte proliferation in lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Cleve Clin Q 1985; 52: 137–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 86.
    Colby TV, Carrington CB. Pulmonary lymphomas simulating lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1982; 6: 19–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 87.
    Jaffe ES, Costa JC, Fauci AS, Cossman J, Tsokos M. Malignant lymphoma and erythrophagocytosis simulating malignant histiocytosis. Am J Med 1983; 75: 741–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 88.
    Shank BB, Kelley CD, Nisce LZ, Nori D. Radiation therapy in lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Cancer 1978; 42: 2572–2580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 89.
    Lee SC, Roth LM, Brashear RE. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis: a clinicopathologic study of four cases. Cancer 1976; 38: 846–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 90.
    Kussmaul A, Maier R. Über eine bisher nicht beschriebene eigenthümliche Arterienerkrankung (Periarteritis nodosa), die mit Morbus Brightii and rapid fortschreitender allgemeiner Muskellähmung einhergeht. Dtsch Arch Klin Med 1866; 1: 484–517.Google Scholar
  104. 91.
    Zeek PM. Periarteritis nodosa: critical review. Am J Clin Pathol 1952; 22: 777–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 92.
    Zeek PM. Periarteritis nodosa and other forms of necrotizing vasculitis. N Engl J Med 1953; 248: 764–772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 93.
    Gocke DJ, Hsu K, Morgan C, Bombardieri S, Lockshin M, Christian CL. Association between polyarteritis and Australia antigen. Lancet 1970; 2: 1149–1153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 94.
    Michelak G. Immune complexes of hepatitis B surface antigen in the pathogenesis of periarteritis nodosa. Am J Pathol 1978; 90: 619–627.Google Scholar
  108. 95.
    Fauci AS, Doppman JL, Wolff SM. Cyclophosphamideinduced remissions in advanced polyarteritis nodosa. Am J Med 1978; 64: 890–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 96.
    Fauci AS, Katz P, Haynes BF, Wolff SM. Cyclophosphamide therapy of severe necrotizing vasculitis. N Engl J Med 1979; 301: 235–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 97.
    Glass D, Soter NA, Schur PA. Rheumatoid vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum 1976; 49: 950–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 98.
    Ester D, Christian DL. The natural history of systemic lupus erythematosus by prospective analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1971; 50: 85–95.Google Scholar
  112. 99.
    Mintz G, Fraga A. Arteritis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Intern Med 1965; 116: 55–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 100.
    Ulbright T, Katzenstein A. Solitary necrotizing granulomas of the lung: differentiating features and etiology. Am J Surg Pathol 1980; 4: 13–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 101.
    Fetzger AE, Werner AS, Hagstrom JWC. Pathologic features of pseudomonal pneumonia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1967; 96: 1121–1129.Google Scholar
  115. 102.
    Beschorner WE, Hutchins GM, Burns WH, Saral R, Tutschka PJ, Santos GW. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in bone marrow transplant recipients: miliary and diffuse patterns. Am Rev Respir Dis 1980; 122: 107–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 103.
    Similia S, Ylikorkala O, Wasz-Hockert O. Type 7 adenovirus pneumonia. J Pediatr 1971; 79: 605–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 104.
    Nash G, Foley FD. Herpetic infection of the middle and lower respiratory tract. Am J Clin Pathol 1970; 54: 857–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 105.
    Glick N, Levin S, Nelson K. Recurrent pulmonary infarction in adult chickenpox pneumonia. JAMA 1972; 222: 173–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 106.
    Walker DH, Crawford CG, Cain BG. Rickettsial infection of the pulmonary microcirculation: The bases for interstitial pneumonitis in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Hum Pathol 1980; 11: 263–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 107.
    Citron BP, Halpern M, McCarron M, et al. Necrotizing angiitis associated with drug abuse. N Engl J Med 1970; 283: 1003–1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 108.
    Tomashefski JF, Hirsch CS. The pulmonary vascular lesions of intravenous drug abuse. Hum Pathol 1980; 11: 133–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 109.
    Slavin RE, de Groat WJ. Pathology of the lung in Behcet’s disease. Am J Surg Pathol 1981; 5: 779–788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 110.
    Hughes JP, Stovin PGI. Segmental pulmonary artery aneurysms with peripheral venous thrombosis. Br J Dis Chest 1959; 53: 19–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 111.
    Kopp WL, Green RA. Pulmonary artery aneurysms with recurrent thrombophlebitis: the “Hughes—Stovin syndrome. ” Ann Intern Med 1962; 56: 105–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 112.
    Saldana MJ, Harley RA, Liebow AA, Carrington CB. Experimental extreme pulmonary hypertension and vascular disease in relation to polycythemia. Am J Pathol 1968; 52: 935–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario J. Saldana

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations