Insulin Action and Insulin Resistance in Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

  • John J. Nolan
  • Jerrold M. Olefsky
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Biomedicine book series (CB, volume 15)

Abstract

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a complex metabolic disorder of heterogenous etiology (1–5). There is clearly a strong hereditary component to the disease, but the exact genetic abnormalities are likely to differ among different population groups (6–8). In addition, NIDDM is likely to be multigenic, in that more than one discrete gene defect may exist within a given patient to lead esventually to the NIDDM phenotype. Thus, from a genetic point of view, NIDDM is heterogenous and polygenic, making identification of diabetes genes particularly difficult. Numerous biochemical abnormalities have been identified in NIDDM, and the relative contribution of different physiologic or cellular defects differs among different patient groups (6,7). Regardless of the exact pathophysiologic sequence in a particular patient, once full-blown fasting hyperglycemia develops, a characteristic set of metabolic derangements can be identified in the great majority of patients with NIDDM. The major metabolic abnormalities in NIDDM are summarized in Fig. 1, which depicts the final common pathophysiologic state in a typical NIDDM patient (1). It comprises abnormalities in the pancreatic islets, the liver, and the peripheral insulin target tissues.

Keywords

Insulin Resistance Insulin Receptor Insulin Action Glucose Disposal NIDDM Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • John J. Nolan
  • Jerrold M. Olefsky

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