Vertigo pp 99-115 | Cite as

Perilymph fistulas (PLF)

  • Thomas Brandt

Abstract

The perilymph space surrounds the endolymphfilled membranous labyrinth, and both are encapsuled by the bony labyrinth. Perilymph fistulas (PLF) — abnormal communications between the perilymph space and the middle ear (Fig. 6.1) – are caused by traumatic pressure changes in either the cerebrospinal fluid (explosive force) and/or the middle ear (implosive force) (Fig. 23.1; p. 353). PLF may lead to episodic vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss, owing to pathological elasticity of the otic capsule or leakage of perilymph, usually at the oval and round windows. The fistula and a partial collapse of the membranous labyrinth (“floating” labyrinth) permit abnormal transfer of ambient pressure changes to maculae and cupulae receptors.

Keywords

Semicircular Canal Round Window Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Endolymphatic Hydrops Membranous Labyrinth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Althaus SR (1977) Spontaneous and traumatic perilymph fistulas. Laryngoscope 87: 364–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Althaus SR (1981) Perilymph fistulas. Laryngoscope 91:538–562 Althaus SR, House HP (1973) Long-term results of perilymph fistula repair. Laryngoscope 83: 1502–1509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon JB, Miller GW (1985) Perilymph fistula. South Med J 78: 1454–1457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aso S, Gibson WP (1994) Perilymphatic fistula with no visible leak of fluid into the middle ear: a new method of intraoperative diagnosis using electrocochleography. Am J Otol 15: 96–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Belenky WM, Madgy DN, Leider JS, Becker CJ, Hotaling AJ (1993) The enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome ( EVA syndrome ). Ear Nose Throat 72: 746–751Google Scholar
  6. Black FO, Lilly DJ, Nashner LM, Peterka RJ, Pesznecker SC (1987) Quantitative diagnostic test for perilymph fistulas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 96: 125–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Black FO, Pesznecker S, Norton T, Fowler L, Lilly DJ, Shupert C, Hemenway WG, Peterka RJ, Jacobson ES (1991) Surgical management of perilymph fistulas. A new technique. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117: 641–648Google Scholar
  8. Black FO, Pesznecker S, Norton T, Fowler L, Lilly DJ, Shupert C, Hemenway WG, Peterka RJ, Jacobson ES (1992) Surgical management of perilymph fistulas: a Portland experience. Am J Otol 13: 5Google Scholar
  9. Bojrab DI, Bhansali SA (1993) Fluorescein use in the detection of perilymphatic fistula: a study in cats. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 108: 348–355Google Scholar
  10. Bordure P, Delaroche O, Beauvillian C, Legent F (1994) Perilymph fistula: diagnosis by detection of perilymph in the middle ear by beta-2-transferrin immunofixation. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 111: 180–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Borries GV (1923) Vaskuläre Labyrinthfistelsymptome. Mschr Ohrenheilk 57: 443Google Scholar
  12. Brandt Th, Dieterich M (1987) Pathological eye-head coordination in roll: Tonic ocular tilt reaction in mesencephalic and medullary lesions. Brain 110: 649–666Google Scholar
  13. Brandt Th, Dieterich M, Fries W (1988) Otolithic Tullio phenomenon typically presents as paroxysmal ocular tilt reaction. Adv Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 42: 153–156Google Scholar
  14. Brockman SJ (1959) An exploratory investigation of delayed progressive neural hypacusis in children. Arch Otolaryngol 70: 340–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bronstein AM, Faldon M, Rothwell J, Gresty MA, Colebatch J, Ludman H (1995) Clinical and electrophysiological findings in theTullio phenomenon. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 520: 209–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bush GA, Miles FA (1996) Short-latency compensatory eye movements associated with a brief period of free fall. Exp Brain Res 108: 337–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carpenter MB, Cowie RJ (1985) Connections and oculomotor projections of the superior vestibular nucleus and cell group ‘y’. Brain Res (Amsterdam) 336: 256–287Google Scholar
  18. Cawthorne T (1956) Chronic adhesive otitis. J Laryngol Otol 70: 559–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cody DTR, Simonton KM, Hallberg OE (1967) Automatic repetitive decompression of the saccule in endolymphatic hydrops ( Tack operation ). Laryngoscope 77: 1480–1501Google Scholar
  20. Cohen H, Allen JR, Congdon SL, Jenkins HA (1995) Oscillopsia and vertical eye movements in Tullio’s phenomenon. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 12: 459–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Colebatch JG, Rothwell JC, Bronstein A, Ludmann H (1994) Click-evoked vestibular activation in the Tullio phenomenon. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57: 1538–1540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crook JP (1967) Congenital fistula in the stapedial footplate. South Med J 60: 1168–1170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Curthoys PD (1987) Eye movements produced by utricular and saccular stimulation.Aviat Environ Med 58 (Suppl 9) A: 192–197Google Scholar
  24. Daspit CP, Churchill D, Linthicum FH (1980) Diagnosis of perilymph fistula using ENG and impedance. Laryngoscope 90: 217–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Deecke L, Mergner T, Plester D (1981) Tullio phenomenon with torsion of the eyes and subjective tilt of the visual surround. Ann NY Acad Sci 374: 650–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Deetjen H (1899) Akustische Störungen der Perilymphe. Z Biol 14: 159–166Google Scholar
  27. Diener HC, Bootz F, Dichgans J, Bruzek W (1983) Variability of postural reflexes in man. Exp Brain Res 52: 423–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dieterich M, Brandt Th, Fries W (1989) Otolith function in man: Results from a case of otolith Tullio phenomenon. Brain 112: 1377–1392Google Scholar
  29. Dietz V, Berger W (1982) Spinal coordination of bilateral leg muscle activity during balancing. Exp Brain Res 47: 172–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dohlman G (1931) Diskussionsbemerkung. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 15: 322Google Scholar
  31. Fee GA (1968) Traumatic perilymph fistulas. Arch Otolaryngol 88: 477–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fraser JG, Flood LM (1982) An audiometric test for perilymph fistula. J Laryngol Otol 96: 513–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fries W, Dieterich M, Brandt Th (1988) Otolithic control of posture: Vestibulo-spinal reflexes in a patient with a Tullio phenomenon. Adv Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 41: 162–165Google Scholar
  34. Fries W, Dieterich M, Brandt T (1993) Otolith contributions to postural control in man: short latency motor responses following sound stimulation in a case of otolithic Tullio phenomenon. Gait and Posture 1: 145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gacek RR (1971) Anatomical demonstration of the vestibuloocular projections in the cat. Laryngoscope 81: 1559–1595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gibson WP (1993) Spontaneous perilymphatic fistula: electrophysiologic findings in animals and man. Am J Otol 14: 273–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Glasscock ME, Hart MJ, Rosdeutscher JD, Bhansali SA (1992) Traumatic perilymphatic fistula: how long can symptoms persist. A follow-up report. Am J Otol 13: 333–338Google Scholar
  38. Goodhill V (1967) The conductive loss phenomena in post stapedectomy perilymph fistula. Laryngoscope 77: 1179–1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goodhill V (1971) Sudden deafness and round window rupture.Laryngoscope 81: 1462–1474Google Scholar
  40. Goodhill V, Harris I, Brockman SJ, Hantz 0 (1973) Sudden deafness and labyrinthine window ruptures, audio-vestibular observations. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 82: 2–12Google Scholar
  41. Greenwood R, Hopkins A (1976) Muscle responses during sudden falls in man. J Physiol 254: 507–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Grewal DS, Hiranandani NL, Pusalkar AG (1983) Traumatic perilymph fistulae of the round and oval windows. J Laryngol Otol 97: 1149–1155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grimm RJ, Hemenway WG, Lebray PR, Black FO (1989) The perilymph fistula syndrome defined in mild head trauma. Almquist andWiksell Tryckeri, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  44. Grundfast KM, Bluestone CD (1978) Sudden and fluctuating hearing loss and vertigo in children due to perilymph fistula. Ann Otol 87: 761–771Google Scholar
  45. Gussen R (1981) Sudden hearing loss associated with cochlear membrane rupture. Arch Otolaryngol 107: 598–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gyo K, Kobayashi T, Yumoto E, Yanagihara N (1994) Postoperative recurrence of perilymph fistulas. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 514: 59–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hadj-Djilani AMT (1991) Ataxia induced by acoustic stimulation on force platform: results on patients with hearing loss and/or vestibular lesion. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 481: 447–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Halmagyi GM, Gresty MA, Gibson WPR (1979) Ocular tilt reac- tion with peripheral vestibular lesion. Ann Neurol 6: 80–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harris D (1979) Healing of the surgical wound. J Am Acad Dermatol 1: 197–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harrison WH, Shambaugh GE, Derlaki EL, Clemis JD (1967) Perilymphatic fistulas in stapes surgery. Laryngoscope 77: 836–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Healy GB, Strong MS, Feldman RG (1973) Ataxia secondary to labyrinthine fistula. Laryngoscope 83: 502–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Healy GB, Strong MS, Sampogna D (1974) Ataxia, vertigo, and hearing loss. A result of rupture of inner ear window. Arch Otolaryngol 100: 130–135Google Scholar
  53. Healy GB, Friedman TM, Strong MS (1976) Vestibular and auditory findings of perilymph fistula: a review of 40 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 82: 44–49Google Scholar
  54. Hemenway WF (1968) Post-stapedectomy perilymph fistulas in Rocky Mountain areas. Laryngoscope 78: 1687–1715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hennebert C (1905) Reflexe oto-oculo-moteur. Int Zlb Ohrenheilk 3: 405Google Scholar
  56. House HP (1967) The fistula problem in otosclerotic surgery. Laryngoscope 77: 1410–1426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Huizinga E (1934) Über die Schallreflexe von Tullio. Pflügers Arch 234: 665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Huizinga E (1935) On the sound reaction of Tullio. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 22: 359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Huizinga E, de Vries HL, Vrolijk JM (1951) Analysis of the micro-phonic activity of the labyrinth of the pigeon into the contributions of various parts. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 39: 372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ildiz F, Dundar A (1994) A case of Tullio phenomenon in a subject with oval window fistula due to barotrauma. Aviat Space Environ Med 65: 67–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ilium P (1972) The Mondini type of cochlear malformation. Arch Otolaryngol 96: 305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ishizaki H, Pyykkö I, Aalto H, Starck J (1991) Tullio phenomenon and postural stability: experimental study in normal subjects and patients with vertigo. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 100: 976–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jellinek A (1928) Akustische Reflexe an Tauben nach isolierter Verletzung der knöchernen Bogengänge. Mschr Ohrenheilk 62: 241Google Scholar
  64. Kacker SK, Hinchcliffe R (1970) Unusual Tullio phenomena. J Laryngol Otol 84: 155–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kimura RS (1984) Fistulae in the membranous labyrinth. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 93: 36–43Google Scholar
  66. Kimura RS, Schuknecht HF, Ota CY, Jones DD (1980) Obliteration of the ductus reuniens. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 89:295–309 Kitamura K, Schuknecht HF, Kimura RS (1982) Cochlear hydrops in association with collapsed saccule and ductus reuniens. Ann Otol 9: 5–13Google Scholar
  67. Knight NJ (1977) Severe sensorineural deafness in children due to perforation of the round window membrane. Lancet ii:1003 Kobayashi T, Sato T, Toshima M, Ishidoya M, Suetake M, Takasaka T (1995) Treatment of labyrinthine fistula with interruption of the semicircular canals. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121: 469–475Google Scholar
  68. Kohut RI, Hinojosa R, Ryu JH (1988) Perilymphatic fistulae: a single-blind clinical histopathological study. Adv Otorhinolaryngol 42: 148–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kohut RI, Hinojosa R, Thompson JN, Ryu JH (1995) Idiopathic perilymphatic fistulas. A temporal bone histopathologic study with clinical, surgical and histopathologic correlations. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121: 412–420Google Scholar
  70. Koskas HJ, Linthicum FH, House WF (1983) Membranous ruptures in Meniere’s disease: Existence, location and incidence. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 91: 61–67Google Scholar
  71. Kubo T, Kohno M, Naramura H, Itoh M (1993) Clinical characteristics and hearing recovery in perilymphatic fistulas of different etiologies. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 113: 307–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kukita N, Nomura Y (1994) Morphological changes of the vestibular labyrinth by experimental perilymph fistula. Showa Univ J Med Sci 6: 97–103Google Scholar
  73. Kwee HL (1972) A case of Tullio phenomenon with congenital middle-ear abnormalities. ORL (Basel) 34: 145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lacour R, Xerri C (1980) Compensation of postural reactions to free-fall in the vestibular neurectomised monkey. Exp Brain Res 40: 103–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lang W, Büttner-Ennever JA, Büttner U (1979) Vestibular projections to the monkey thalamus: an autoradiographic study. Brain Res 177: 3–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lange G (1966) Das Tullio-Phänomen and eine Möglichkeit seinerGoogle Scholar
  77. Behandlung. Arch Klin Exp Ohr Nas Kehlk Heilk 187:643–649 Legent F, Bordure P (1994) Post-traumatic perilymphatic fistulas.Google Scholar
  78. Bull Acad Natl Med 178:35–44Google Scholar
  79. Lehrer JF, Rubin RC, Poole DR, Hubbard JH, Wille R, Jacobs GB (1984) Perilymphatic fistula–a definitive and curable cause of vertigo following head trauma. West J Med 141: 57–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lewis ML (1961) Inner ear complications of stapes surgery. Laryngoscope 71: 377–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Love JT, Waguespack RW (1981) Perilymphatic fistulas. Laryngoscope 91: 1118–1128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lucae A (1881) Über optischen Schwindel bei Druckerhöhung im Ohr. Arch Ohr Nas Kehlk Heilk 17: 237Google Scholar
  83. Lyos AT, Marsh MA, Jenkins HA, Cocker NJ (1995) Progressive hearing loss after transverse temporal bone fracture. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121: 795–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Melvill Jones G, Watt DG (1971) Muscular control of landing from unexpected falls in man. J Physiol 219: 729–737Google Scholar
  85. Menzio P (1952) I riflessi di Tullio in sogetti operati di fenestrazione labirintica. Otol ecc Ital 20:168, cited in Zbl Hals Nas Ohren Heilk 66: 374 (1953)Google Scholar
  86. Meyerhoff WL (1993) Spontaneous perilymphatic fistula: myth or fact. Am J Otol 14: 478–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Minor LB, Solomon D, Zinreich JS, Zee DS (1998) Sound-and/or pressure-induced vertigo due to dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 124: 249–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Molvaer OI, Natrud E (1979) Ear damage due to diving. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 360: 187–189Google Scholar
  89. Moon CN, Hahn M (1978) Pneumatic otoscopy and impedance studies in middle ear diagnosis. Laryngoscope 88: 1439–1448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Moretz WH Jr, Shea JJ Jr, Emmett JR, Shea JJ III (1986) A simple autologous fibrinogen glue for otologic surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 95: 122–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Morris MS, Kil J, Carvlin MJ (1993) Magnetic resonance imaging of perilymphatic fistula. Laryngoscope 103: 729–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mygind SH (1918) Ein neues Fistelsymptom. Mschr Ohrenheilk 54: 260Google Scholar
  93. Naito T (1955) Three cases of Menière’s disease showing Tullio’s reaction. Otol Fukuoka 1:249 cited in Zbl Hals Nas Ohren Heilk 54: 265 (1955/56)Google Scholar
  94. Nakashima T, Itoh M, Sato M, Sato M, Watanabe Y, Yanagita N (1988) Auditory and vestibular disorders due to barotrauma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 97: 146–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Nashner LM (1976) Adapting reflexes controlling the human posture. Exp Brain Res 26: 59–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nomura Y (1994) Perilymph fistula: concept, diagnosis and management. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 514: 52–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nomura Y, Hara M, Funai H, Okuno T (1987) Endolymphatic hydrops in perilymphatic fistula. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 103: 469–476Google Scholar
  98. Nomura Y, Hara M, Young YH, Okuno T (1992a) Inner ear morphology of experimental perilymphatic fistula. Am J Otol 13: 32–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Nomura Y, Okuno T, Hara M, Young YH (1992b) “Floating” labyrinth: pathophysiology and treatment of perilymph fistulas. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 112:186–191Google Scholar
  100. Nylen CO (1923) The labyrinthine fistula symptoms and pseudo-fistula symptoms in otitis. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl. 3 Ogawa K, Kanzaki J, Ogawa S, Tsuchihashi N, Inoue Y, Yamamoto M (1994) Endoscopic diagnosis of idiopathic perilymph fistula. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 514: 63–65Google Scholar
  101. Ostrowski VB, Hain TC, Wiet RJ (1997) Pressure-induced ocular torsion. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 123: 646–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Palva T (1983) Treatment of ear with labyrinth fistula.Google Scholar
  103. Laryngoscope 93:1617–1619Google Scholar
  104. Pareil GJ, Becker GD (1986) Results of surgical repair of inapparent perilymph fistulas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 95: 344–346Google Scholar
  105. Petroff MA, Simmons FB, Winzelberg J (1986) Two emerging perilymph fistula “syndromes” in children. Laryngoscope 96: 498–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Poe DS, Gadre AK, Rebeiz EE, Pankratov MM (1993) Intravenous fluorescein for detection of perilymphatic fistulas. Am J Otol 14: 51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Potter CR, Conner GH (1983) Hydrops following perilymph fistula repair. Laryngoscope 93: 810–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pullen FW (1992) Perilymphatic fistula induced by barotrauma. Am J Otol 13: 270–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Pullen FW, Rosenberg GT, Cabeza CH (1979) Sudden hearing loss in divers and fliers. Laryngoscope 86: 1373–1377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pyykkö I, Ishizaki H, Aalto H, Starck J (1992) Relevance of the Tullio phenomenon in assessing perilymphatic leak in vertiginous patients. Am J Otol 13: 339–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Reisine H, Highstein SM (1979) The ascending tract of Deiters’ conveys a head velocity signal to medial rectus motoneurons. Brain Res 170: 172–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rice WJ, Waggoner LG (1967) Congenital cerebro-spinal fluid otorrhea via a defect in the stapes footplate. Laryngoscope 77: 341–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Richard D (1916) Untersuchung über die Frage, ob Schallreize adäquate Reize für den Vorhofbogengangsapparat sind. Z Biol 66: 479–505Google Scholar
  114. Rottach KG, Maydell RD von, DiScenna AO, Zivotofsky AZ, Averbuch-Heller L, Leigh RJ (1996) Quantitative measurements of eye movements in a patient with Tullio phenomenon. J Vestib Res 6: 255–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Salomon G, Starr A (1963) Electromyography of middle ear muscles in man during motor activities. Acta Neurol Scand 39: 161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sakikawa Y, Kobayashi H, Nomura Y (1994) Changes in cerebrospinal fluid pressure in daily life. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 103: 959–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Schuknecht HF (1993) Pathology of the ear. 2nd Ed, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  118. Schuknecht HF (1980) Mondini dysplasia. A clinical and patho-Google Scholar
  119. logical study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 65, 89:1–23 Seltzer S, McCabe BF (1986) Perilymph fistula: the Iowa experi-ence. Laryngoscope 94: 37–49Google Scholar
  120. Shelton C, Simmons FB (1988) Perilymph fistula: the Stanford experience. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 97: 105–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Simmons FB (1982) Perilymph fistula: Some diagnostic problems. Adv Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 28: 67–72Google Scholar
  122. Singleton G, Weider D (1987) Panel discussion: Perilymphatic fistula. Am J Otol 8: 355–363Google Scholar
  123. Singleton GT, Karlan MS, Post KN, Bock DG (1978) Perilymph fistulas. Diagnostic criteria and therapy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 87: 1–7Google Scholar
  124. Spitzer H, Ritter K (1979) Ein Beitrag zum Tullio-Phänomen. Laryng Rhinol 58: 934–936Google Scholar
  125. Stenger HH (1953) Pulssynchroner Pendelnystagmus.Google Scholar
  126. Fistelsymptome ohne Fistel and Lagefistelsymptom. Arch Klin Exp Ohr Nas Kehlk Heilk 162:213–228Google Scholar
  127. Supance JS, Bluestone CD (1983) Perilymph fistulas in infants and children. Otol Head Neck Surg 91: 663–671Google Scholar
  128. Suzuki JI, Tokumasu K, Goto K (1969) Eye movements from single utricular nerve stimulation in the cat. Acta Otolaryngol 68: 350–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Thalmann I, Kohut RI, Ryu J, Comegys TH, Senarita M, Thalmann R (1994) Protein profile of human perilymph: in search of markers for the diagnosis of perilymph fistula and other inner ear disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 111: 273–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Thompson JN, Kohut RI (1979) Perilymph fistulae: Variability of symptoms and results of surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 87: 898–903Google Scholar
  131. Tullio P (1929) Das Ohr and die Entstehung der Sprache and Schrift. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Munich.Google Scholar
  132. van Eunen AJH, Huizinga HC, Huizinga E (1943) Die Tulliosche Reaktion im Zusammenhang mit der Funktion des Mittelohrs. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 31: 265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vogel P, Tackmann W, Schmidt FJ (1986) Observations on the Tullio phenomenon. J Neurol 233: 136–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wall C, Rauch SD (1995) Perilymph fistula pathophysiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112: 145–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Watt DGD (1976) Responses of cats to sudden falls: An otolith originating reflex assisting landing. J Neurophysiol 39: 257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Weber PC, Perez BA, Bluestone CD (1993) Congenital perilymphatic fistula and associated middle ear abnormalities. Laryngoscope 103: 160–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Weber PC, Kelly RH, Bluestone CD, Bassiouny M (1994) Beta 2-transferrin confirms perilymphatic fistula in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 110: 381–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Weider DJ, Johnson GD (1988) Perilymphatic fistula: a New Hampshire experience. Am J Otol 9: 184–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Weider DJ, Musiek FE (1984) Bilateral congenital oval window microfistulae in a mother and son. Laryngoscope 94:1455–1458 Weissman JL, Weber PC, Bluestone CD (1994) Congenital perilymphatic fistula: computed tomography appearance of middle ear and inner ear abnormalities. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 111: 243–249Google Scholar
  140. Westheimer G, Blair SM (1975) The ocular tilt reaction–a brain-stem oculomotor routine. Invest Ophthalmol 14: 833–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Wlodyka J (1978) Studies on cochlear aqueduct patency. Ann Otol 87: 22–28Google Scholar
  142. Woldag K, Meister EF, Kosling S (1995) Diagnosis in persistent vertigo after stapes surgery. Laryngorhinootologie 74:403–407 Wurtele P (1981) Traumatic rupture of the eardrum with round window fistula. J Otolaryngol 10: 309–312Google Scholar
  143. Young YH, Nomura Y, Hara M (1992) Caloric irregularity in experimentally induced perilymphatic fistula. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 249: 181–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Young YH, Nomura Y (1995) Recovery of caloric function in experimental perilymph fistula. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 104: 484–487PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Brandt
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurologische Klinik, Klinikum GroßhadernLudwig-Maximillians-UniversitätMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations