Vertigo pp 219-231 | Cite as

Vestibular cortex: its locations, functions, and disorders

  • Thomas Brandt

Abstract

The two major cortical functions of the vestibular system are spatial orientation and self-motion perception. These functions, however, are not exclusively vestibular; they also rely on visual and somatosensory input. All three systems (vestibular, visual and somatosensory) provide us with redundant information about the position and motion of our body relative to the external space. Although the vestibular cortex function is distributed among several multisensory areas in the parietal and temporal cortices, it is also integrated in a larger network for spatial attention and sensorimotor control of eye and body motion in space.

Keywords

Vestibular System Vestibular Stimulation Vestibular Input Head Acceleration Optokinetic Nystagmus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akbarian S, Grasser O-J, Guldin WO (1992) Thalamic connections of the vestibular cortical fields in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). J Comp Neurol 325: 1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akbarian S. Grüsser O-J, Guldin WO (1994) Corticofugal connections between the cerebral cortex and brainstem vestibular nuclei in the macaque monkey. J Comp Neurol 339: 421–437Google Scholar
  3. Andersen RA (1987) Inferior parietal lobule function in spatial perception and visuomotor integration. In: Mountcastle VB, Plum F, Geiger SR (eds) Handbook of physiology. Section I: the nervous system, vol V. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 483–518Google Scholar
  4. Andersen RA, Essick GK, Siegel RM (1985) Encoding of spatial location by posterior parietal neurons. Science 230: 456–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersen RA, Gnadt JW (1989) Posterior parietal cortex. In: Wurtz RH, Goldberg ME, (eds). Reviews in oculomotor research. 3. The neurobiology of saccadic eye movements. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 315–335Google Scholar
  6. Beschin N, Cocchini G, Della Sala S, Logie RH (1997) What the eyes perceive, the brain ignores: a case of pure unilateral representational neglect. Cortex 33: 3–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bisiach E, Rusconi ML, Peretti VA, Vallar G (1994) Challenging current accounts of unilateral neglect. Neuropsychologia 32: 1431–1434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bottini G, Sterzi R, Paulesu E, Vallar G, Cappa SF, Erminio F, Passingham RE, Frith CD, Frackowiak RSJ (1994) Identification of the central vestibular projections in man: a positron emission tomography activation study. Exp Brain Res 99: 164–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brandt Th (1997) The cortical matching of visual and vestibular 3-D coordinate maps. Ann Neurol 42: 983–984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brandt Th, Dichgans J, Koenig E (1973) Differential effects of central versus peripheral vision on egocentric and exocentric motion perception. Exp Brain Res 16: 476–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brandt Th, Bötzel K, Yousry T, Dieterich M, Schultze S (1995) Rotational vertigo in embolic stroke of the vestibular and auditory cortices. Neurology 45: 42–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brandt Th, Bartenstein P, Janek A, Dieterich M (1998a) Reciprocal inhibitory visual-vestibular interaction: visual motion stimulation deactivates the parieto-insular vestibular cortex. Brain 121: 1749–1758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brandt Th, Bucher SF, Seelos KC, Dieterich M (1998b) Bilateral fMRI-activation of motion-sensitive areas MT/MST in homonymous hemianopia. Arch Neurol 55: 1126–1131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bucher SF, Dieterich M, Seelos KC, Brandt Th (1997) Sensorimotor cerebral activation during optokinetic nystagmus. A functional MRI study. Neurology 49: 1370–1377Google Scholar
  15. Bucher SF, Dieterich M, Wiesmann M, Weiss A, Zink R, Yousry TA, Brandt T (1998) Cerebral functional magnetic resonance imaging of vestibular, auditory, and nociceptive areas during galvanic stimulation. Ann Neurol 44: 120–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Büttner U, Buettner UW (1978) Parietal cortex area 2 V neuronal activity in the alert monkey during natural vestibular and optokinetic stimulation. Brain Res 153: 392–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cappa S, Sterzi R, Vallar G, Bisiach E (1987) Remission of hemineglect and anosognosia during vestibular stimulation. Neuropsychologia 25: 775–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coslett HB (1997) Neglect in vision and visual imagery: a double dissociation. Brain 120: 1163–1171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dichgans J, Brandt Th (1978) Visual-vestibular interaction: effects on self-motion perception and postural control. In: R Held, HW Leibowitz, H-L Teuber (eds) Handbook of sensory physiology, vol VIII Perception, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 755–804Google Scholar
  20. Dieterich M, Brandt Th (1993) Thalamic infarctions: differential effects on vestibular function of the roll plan (35 patients). Neurology 43: 1732–1740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dieterich M, Brandt Th, Bartenstein P, Wenzel R, Danek A, Lutz S, Ziegler S (1996) Different vestibular cortex areas activated during caloric irrigation: A PET study. J Neurol Suppl 2 243: S40Google Scholar
  22. Dieterich M, Bucher SF, Seelos KC, Brandt Th (1998a) Horizontal or vertical optokinetic stimulation activates visual motion-sensitive, ocular motor and vestibular cortex areas with right hemispheric dominance. An fMRI study. Brain 121: 1479–1495Google Scholar
  23. Dieterich M, Grünbauer W, Brandt Th (1998b) Direction-specific impairment of motion perception and spatial orientation in downbeat and upbeat nystagmus. Neurosci Lett 245: 29–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Faugier-Grimaud S, Ventre J (1989) Anatomic connections of inferior parietal cortex (area 7) with subcortical structures related to vestibulo-ocular function in a monkey ( Macaca fascicularis ). J Comp Neurol 280: 1–14Google Scholar
  25. Foerster 0 (1936) Sensible Kortikale Felder. In: Bumke O, Foerster O (eds) Handbuch der Neurologie, vol Vl. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 358–449Google Scholar
  26. Fredrickson JM, Figge U, Scheid P, Kornhuber HH (1966) Vestibular nerve projection to the cerebral cortex of the rhesus monkey. Exp Brain Res 2: 318–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Friberg L, Olsen TS, Roland PE, Paulson OB, Lassen NA (1985) Focal increase of blood flow in the cerebral cortex of man during vestibular stimulation. Brain 108: 609–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Galletti C, Battaglini PP, Fattori P (1993) Parietal neurons encoding spatial orientations in craniotopic coordinates. Exp Brain Res 96: 221–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gerstmann J (1926) Über eine eigenartige Orientierungsströrung im Raum bei zerebraler Erkrankung. Wien med Wochenschr 76: 817–818Google Scholar
  30. Glasauer S, Mittelstaedt H (1992) Determinants of orientation in microgravity. Acta Astronautica 27: 1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grüsser O-J, Guldin WO (1995) Primate vestibular cortices and spatial orientation. In: Mergner T, Hlavacka F (eds) Multi-sensory control of posture. Plenum Press, New York, pp 51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grüsser OJ, Pause M, Schreiter U (1990a) Localization and responses of neurons in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex of the awake monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). J Physiol 430: 537–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Grüsser OJ, Pause M, Schreiter U (1990b) Vestibular neurons in the parieto-insular cortex of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): visual and neck receptor responses. J Physiol 430: 559–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Guldin WO, Akbarian S, Grüsser O-J (1992) Cortico-cortical connections and cytoarchitectonics of the primate vestibular cortex: a study in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). J Comp Neurol 324: 1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guldin W, Grasser O-J (1996) The anatomy of the vestibular cortices of primates. In: M. Collard, M. Jeannerod, Y. Christen (eds) Le cortex vestibulaire. Ipsen, Boulogne, pp 17–26Google Scholar
  36. Halpern F (1930) Kasuistischer Beitrag zur Frage des Verkehrtsehens. Z gesamt Neurol Psychiat 126: 246–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Husain M, Kennard C (1996) Visual neglect associated with frontal lobe infarction. J Neurol 243: 652–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jeannerod M (1996) Vestibular cortex. A network from directional coding of behavior. In: M. Collard, M. Jeannerod, Y. Christen (eds) Le cortex vestibulaire. Ipsen, Boulogne, pp 5–15Google Scholar
  39. Jijiwa H, Kawaguchi T, Watanabe S, Miyata H (1991) Cortical projections of otolith organs in the cat. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 481: 69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones EG, Burton H (1976) Areal differences in the laminar distribution of thalamic afferents in cortical fields of insular, parietal and temporal opercular regions of primates. J Comp Neurol 168: 197–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Karnath H-O (1994) Subjective body orientation in neglect and the interactive contribution of neck muscle proprioception and vestibular stimulation. Brain 117: 1001–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Karnath H-O, Schenkel P, Fischer B (1991) Trunk orientation as the determining factor of the “contralateral” deficit in the neglect syndrome and as the physical anchor of the internal representation of body orientation in space. Brain 114: 1997–2014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Karnath H-0, Christ K, Hartje W (1993) Decrease of contralateral neglect by neck muscle vibration and spatial orientation of trunk midline. Brain 116: 383–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kawano K, Sasaki M, Yamashita M (1980) Vestibular input to visual tracking neurons in the posterior parietal association cortex of the monkey. Neurosci Lett 17: 55–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Klopp H (1951) Über Umgekehrt-und Verkehrtsehen. Deutsch Zeitschr Nervenheilk 165: 231–260Google Scholar
  46. Kohler I (1956) Die Methode des Brillenversuches in der Wahrnehmungspsychologie mit Bemerkungen zur Lehre der Adaptation. Z Exp Angew Psychol 3: 381–417Google Scholar
  47. Kolev OI (1995) Visual hallucinations evoked by caloric vestibular stimulation in normal humans. J Vestib Res 5: 19–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maeshima S, Terada T, Nakai K, Nishibayashi H, Ozaki F, Itakura T, Komai N (1995) Unilateral spatial neglect due to a haemorrhagic contusion in the right frontal lobe. J Neurol 242: 613–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mesulam M-M (1981) A cortical network for directed attention and unilateral neglect. Ann Neurol 10: 309–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mickle WA, Ades HW (1952) A composite sensory projection area in the cerebral cortex of the cat. Am J Physiol 170: 682–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Munk MHJ, Nowak LG, Nelson JI, Bullier J (1995) Structural basis of cortical synchronization. II. Effects of cortical lesions. J Neurophysiol 74: 2401–2414Google Scholar
  52. Nobre AC, Sebestyen GN, Gitelman DR, Mesulam MM, Frackowiak RSJ, Frith CD (1997) Functional localization of the system for visuospatial attention using positron emission tomography. Brain 120: 515–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nowak LG, Munk MHJ, Nelson JI, James AC, Bullier J (1995) Structural basis of cortical synchronization. I. Three types of interhemispheric coupling. J Neurophysiol 74: 2379–2400Google Scholar
  54. Ödkvist LM, Schwarz DWF, Fredrickson JM, Hassler R (1974) Projection of the vestibular nerve to the area 3a arm field in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) Exp Brain Res 21: 97–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Pandya DN, Sanides F (1973) Architectonic parcellation of the temporal operculum in rhesus monkey and its projection pattern. Z Anat Entwicklungsg 139: 127–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Penfield W, Jasper H (1954) Epilepsy and the functional anatomy of the human brain. Little Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  57. Penfield W, Kristiansen K (1951) Epileptic seizure patterns. Thomas, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  58. Phillips CG, Powell TPS, Wiesendanger M (1971) Projection from low threshold muscle afferents of hand and forearm to area 3a of baboon’s cortex. J Physiol (Lond) 217: 419–446Google Scholar
  59. Probst Th, Straube A, Bles W (1985) Differential effects of ambivalent visual-vestibular-somatosensory stimulation on the perception of self motion. Behav Brain Res 16: 71–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rapcsak SZ, Cimino CR, Heilman KM (1988) Altitudinal neglect. Neurology 38: 277–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Robertson IH, Tegnér R, Goodrich SI, Wilson C (1994) Walking trajectory and hand movements in unilateral left neglect: a vestibular hypothesis. Neuropsychologia 32: 1495–1502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schwarz DWF, Fredrickson JM (1971) Rhesus monkey vestibular cortex: a bimodal primary projection field. Science 172: 280–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schwarz DWF, Deecke L, Fredrickson JM (1973) Cortical projection of group I muscle afferents to areas 2, 3a and the vestibular field in the rhesus monkey. Exp Brain Res 17: 516–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shelton PA, Bowers D, Heilman KM (1990) Peripersonal and vertical neglect. Brain 113: 191–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smith BH (1960) Vestibular disturbance in epilepsy. Neurology 10: 465–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Solms M, Kaplan-Solms M, Saling M, Miller P (1988) Inverted vision after frontal lobe disease. Cortex 24: 499–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Tiecks FP, Planck J, Haberl RL, Brandt T (1996) Reduction in posterior cerebral artery blood flow velocity during caloric vestibular stimulation. J Cerebr Blood Flow Metab 16: 1379–1382Google Scholar
  68. Tiliket C, Ventre-Dominey J, Vighetto A, Grochowicki M (1996) Room tilt illusion. A central otolith dysfunction. Arch Neurol 53: 1259–1264Google Scholar
  69. Vallar G, Perani D (1986) The anatomy of unilateral neglect after right hemisphere stroke lesions: a clinical CT correlation study in man. Neuropsychologia 24: 609–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vallar G, Bottini G, Rusconi ML, Sterzi R (1993) Exploring somatosensory hemineglect by vestibular stimulation. Brain 116: 71–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vallar G, Guariglia C, Nico D, Bisiach E (1995) Spatial hemineglect in back space. Brain 118: 467–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vuilleumier P, Hester D, Assal G, Regli F (1996) Unilateral spatial neglect recovery after sequential strokes. Neurology 19: 184–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Walzl EM, Mountcastle VB (1949) Projection of vestibular nerve to cerebral cortex of cat. Am J Physiol 159: 595Google Scholar
  74. Watt DGD (1997) Pointing at memorised targets during prolonged microgravity. Aviat Space Environm Med 68: 99–103Google Scholar
  75. Wenzel R, Bartenstein P, Dieterich M, Danek A, Weindl A, Minoshima S, Ziegler S, Schwaiger M, Brandt Th (1996) Deactivation of human visual cortex during involuntary ocular oscillations: A PET activation study. Brain 119: 101–110Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Brandt
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurologische Klinik, Klinikum GroßhadernLudwig-Maximillians-UniversitätMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations