Circuitry and Function of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

  • Eric D. Young
  • Kevin A. Davis
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 15)

Abstract

In Chapter 2 of this volume, Smith and Spirou describe the wonderful complexity of the brainstem auditory system. This system forms a collection of parallel pathways that diverge at the first auditory synapse in the brainstem, in the cochlear nucleus (CN), and then converge again, at least in a gross anatomical sense, in the inferior colliculus (for abbreviations, see Table 5.1). The CN is a well-studied collection of neural circuits that are diverse both in anatomical and physiological terms (reviewed by Cant 1992; Rhode and Greenberg 1992; Young 1998). These vary from the simplest system, the bushy cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN; see Yin, Chapter 4), to the most complex, in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). The DCN differs from other parts of the CN by having an extensive internal neuropil formed by groups of interneurons (Lorente de Nô 1981; Osen et al. 1990). As a result, the DCN makes significant changes in the auditory representation from its inputs to its outputs. In this chapter, the neural organization of the DCN is reviewed, paying most attention to data from the cat. The response properties of DCN neurons are discussed in the context of its neural organization and related to data on the functional role of the DCN in hearing.

Keywords

Inferior Colliculus Cochlear Nucleus Sound Localization Interaural Time Difference Broadband Noise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrahams VC, Lynn B, Richmond FJ (1984a) Organization and sensory properties of small myelinated fibres in the dorsal cervical rami of the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 347: 177–187.Google Scholar
  2. Abrahams VC, Richmond FJ, Keane J (1984b) Projections from C2 and C3 nerves supplying muscles and skin of the cat neck: a study using transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase. J Comp Neurol 230: 142–154.Google Scholar
  3. Adams JC (1983) Multipolar cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus. Neurosci Lett 37: 205–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams JC, Warr WB (1976) Origins of axons in the cat’s acoustic striae determined by injection of horseradish peroxidase into severed tracts. J Comp Neurol 170: 107–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berrebi AS, Mugnaini E (1991) Distribution and targets of the cartwheel cell axon in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the guinea pig. Anat Embryol 183: 427–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blackburn CC, Sachs MB (1990) The representation of the steady-state vowel sound /E/ in the discharge patterns of cat anteroventral cochlear nucleus neurons. J Neurophysiol 63: 1191–1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blackstad TW, Osen KK, Mugnaini E (1984) Pyramidal neurones of the dorsal cochlear nucleus: A Golgi and computer reconstruction study in cat. Neuroscience 13: 827–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blum JJ, Reed MC (1998) Effects of wide band inhibitors in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. II. Model calculations of the responses to complex tones. J Acoust Soc Am 103: 2000–2009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blum JJ, Reed MC, Davies JM (1995) A computational model for signal processing by the dorsal cochlear nucleus. II. Responses to broadband and notch noise. J Acoust Soc Am 98: 181–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Burian M, Gestoettner W (1988) Projection of primary vestibular afferent fibres to the cochlear nucleus in the guinea pig. Neurosci Lett 84: 13–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cant NB (1992) The cochlear nucleus: Neuronal types and their synaptic organization. In: Webster DB, Popper AN, Fay RR (eds) The Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neuroanatomy. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 66–116.Google Scholar
  12. Cariani PA, Delgutte B (1996a) Neural correlates of the pitch of complex tones. I. Pitch and pitch salience. J Neurophysiol 76: 1698–1716.Google Scholar
  13. Cariani PA, Delgutte B (1996b) Neural correlates of the pitch of complex tones. II. Pitch shift, pitch ambiguity, phase invariance, pitch circularity, rate pitch, and the dominance region for pitch. J Neurophysiol 76: 1717–1734.Google Scholar
  14. Caspary DM, Pazara KE, Kossl M, Faingold CL (1987) Strychnine alters the fusiform cell output from the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Brain Res 417: 273–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dabak AG, Johnson DH (1992) Function-based modeling of binaural processing: interaural phase. Hear Res 58: 200–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis KA (1999) The basic receptive field properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus of decerebrate cats are rarely created by local inhibitory mechanisms. Soc Neurosci Abstr 25: 667.Google Scholar
  17. Davis KA, Young ED (1997) Granule cell activation of complex-spiking neurons in dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurosci 17: 6798–6806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Davis KA, Young ED (2000) Pharmacological evidence of inhibitory and disinhibitory neural circuits in dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 83: 926–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis KA, Ding J, Benson TE, Voigt HF (1996a) Response properties of units in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of unanesthetized decerebrate gerbil. J Neurophysiol 75: 1411–1431.Google Scholar
  20. Davis KA, Miller RL, Young ED (1996b) Effects of somatosensory and parallel-fiber stimulation on neurons in dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 76: 3012–3024.Google Scholar
  21. Doucet JR, Ryugo DK (1997) Projections from the ventral cochlear nucleus to the dorsal cochlear nucleus in rats. J Comp Neurol 385: 245–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Doucet JR, Ross AT, Gillespie MB, Ryugo DK (1999) Glycine immunoreactivity of multipolar neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus which project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol 408: 515–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Evans EF, Nelson PG (1973) The responses of single neurons in the cochlear nucleus of the cat as a function of their location and the anaesthetic state. Exp Brain Res 17: 402–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Evans EF, Zhao W (1993) Varieties of inhibition in the processing and control of processing in the mammalian cochlear nucleus. Prog Brain Res 97: 117–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fernandez C, Karapas F (1967) The course and termination of the striae of Monakow and Held in the cat. J Comp Neurol 131: 371–386.Google Scholar
  26. Gao J-H, Parsons LM, Bower JM, Xiong J, Li J, Fox PT (1996) Cerebellum implicated in sensory acquisition and discrimination rather than motor control. Science 272: 545–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Golding NL, Oertel D (1997) Physiological identification of the targets of cartwheel cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 78: 248–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hancock KE, Davis KA, Voigt HF (1997) Modeling inhibition of type II units in dorsal cochlear nucleus. Biol Cybern 76: 419–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hekmatpanah J (1961) Organization of tactile dermatomes, C1 through L4, in cat. J Neurophysiol 24: 129–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Huang AY, May BJ (1996a) Sound orientation behavior in cats. II. Mid-frequency spectral cues for sound localization. J Acoust Soc Am 100: 1070–1080.Google Scholar
  31. Huang AY, May BJ (1996b) Spectral cues for sound localization in cats: Effects of frequency domain on minimum audible angles in the median and horizontal planes. J Acoust Soc Am 100: 2341–2348.Google Scholar
  32. Imig TJ, Samson F (2000) Differential projection of dorsal and intermediate acoustic striae upon fields AAF and AI in cat auditory cortex. Assoc Res Otolaryngol 23: 11.Google Scholar
  33. Imig TJ, Poirier P, Irons WA, Samson FK (1997) Monaural spectral contrast mechanism for neural sensitivity to sound direction in the medial geniculate body of the cat. J Neurophysiol 78: 2754–2771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Imig TJ, Bibikov NG, Poirier P, Samson FK (2000) Directionality derived from pinna-cue spectral notches in cat dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 83: 907–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Itoh K, Kamiya H, Mitani A, Yasui Y, Takada M, Mizuno N (1987) Direct projection from the dorsal column nuclei and the spinal trigeminal nuclei to the cochlear nuclei in the cat. Brain Res 400: 145–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jiang D, Palmer AR, Winter IM (1996) Frequency extent of two-tone facilitation in onset units in the ventral cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 75: 380–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Joris PX (1998) Response classes in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and its output tract in the chloralose-anesthetized cat. J Neurosci 18: 3955–3966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kanold PO, Young ED (2001) Proprioceptive information from the pinna provides somatosensory input to cat dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurosci 21: 7848–7858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kavanagh GL, Kelly JB (1992) Midline and lateral field sound localization in the ferret (Mustela putorius): Contribution of the superior olivary complex. J Neurophysiol 67: 1643–1658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kevetter GA, Perachio AA (1989) Projections from the sacculus to the cochlear nuclei in the Mongolian Gerbil. Brain Behav Evol 34: 193–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kuhn GF (1987) Physical acoustics and measurements pertaining to directional hearing. In: Yost WA, Gourevitch G (eds) Directional Hearing. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 3–25.Google Scholar
  42. Lingenhöhl K, Friauf E (1994) Giant neurons in the rat reticular formation: A sensorimotor interface in the elementary acoustic startle circuit? J Neurosci 14: 1176–1194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lorente de Nô R (1981) The Primary Acoustic Nuclei. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  44. Manis PB (1989) Responses to parallel fiber stimulation in the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus in vitro. J Neurophysiol 61: 149–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Manis PB, Spirou GA, Wright DD, Paydar S, Ryugo DK (1994) Physiology and morphology of complex spiking neurons in the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol 348: 261–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Mast TE (1970) Binaural interaction and contralateral inhibition in dorsal cochlear nucleus of the chinchilla. J Neurophysiol 33: 108–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Masterton RB, Granger EM (1988) Role of the acoustic striae in hearing: contribution of dorsal and intermediate striae to detection of noises and tones. J Neurophysiol 60: 1841–1860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Masterton RB, Granger EM, Glendenning KK (1994) Role of acoustic striae in hearing—mechanism for enhancement of sound detection in cats. Hear Res 73: 209–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. May BJ (2000) Role of the dorsal cochlear nucleus in the sound localization behavior of cats. Hear Res 148: 74–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. May BJ, Huang A, LePrell G, Hienz RD (1996) Vowel formant frequency discrimination in cats: Comparison of auditory nerve representations and psychophysical thresholds. Aud Neurosci 3: 135–162.Google Scholar
  51. Meloni EG, Davis M (1998) The dorsal cochlear nucleus contributes to a high intensity component of the acoustic startle reflex in rats. Hear Res 119: 69–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Merchân MA, Collia FP, Merchân JA, Saldana E (1985) Distribution of primary afferent fibres in the cochlear nuclei. A silver and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) study. J Anat 141: 121–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Middlebrooks JC, Green DM (1991) Sound localization by human listeners. Ann Rev Psychol 42: 135–159.Google Scholar
  54. Mugnaini E (1985) GABA neurons in the superficial layers of rat dorsal cochlear nucleus: light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. J Comp Neurol 235: 537–570.Google Scholar
  55. Mugnaini E, Osen KK, Dahl AL, Friedrich Jr. VL, Korte G (1980a) Fine structure of granule cells and related interneurons (termed Golgi cells) in the cochlear nuclear complex of cat, rat, and mouse. J Neurocytol 9: 537–570.Google Scholar
  56. Mugnaini E, Warr WB, Osen KK (1980b) Distribution and light microscopic features of granule cells in the cochlear nuclei of cat, rat, and mouse. J Comp Neurol 191: 581–606.Google Scholar
  57. Musicant AD, Chan JCK, Hind JE (1990) Direction-dependent spectral properties of cat external ear: New data and cross-species comparisons. J Acoust Soc Am 87: 757–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Nelken I, Young ED (1994) Two separate inhibitory mechanisms shape the responses of dorsal cochlear nucleus type IV units to narrowband and wideband stimuli. J Neurophysiol 71: 2446–2462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Nelken I, Young ED (1996) Why do cats need a dorsal cochlear nucleus? Rev Clin Basic Pharm 7: 199–220.Google Scholar
  60. Nelken I, Young ED (1997) Linear and non-linear spectral integration in type IV neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus: I. Regions of linear interaction. J Neurophysiol 78: 790–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Nelken I, Kim PJ, Young ED (1997) Linear and non-linear spectral integration in type IV neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus: II. Predicting responses using non-linear methods. J Neurophysiol 78: 800–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Oertel D, Wickesberg RE (1993) Glycinergic inhibition in the cochlear nuclei: evidence for tuberculoventral neurons being glycinergic. In: Merchân MA, Juiz JM, Godfrey DA, Mugnaini E (eds) The Mammalian Cochlear Nuclei: Organization and Function. New York: Plenum, pp. 225–237.Google Scholar
  63. Oertel D, Wu SH, Garb MW, Dizack C (1990) Morphology and physiology of cells in slice preparations of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus of mice. J Comp Neurol 295: 136–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ohlrogge M, Doucet JR, Ryugo DK (2001) Projections from the pontine nuclei to the cochlear nucleus in rats. J Comp Neurol 436: 290–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Oliver DL (1984) Dorsal cochlear nucleus projections to the inferior colliculus in the cat: A light and electron microscopic study. J Comp Neurol 224: 155–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Osen KK (1969) Cytoarchitecture of the cochlear nuclei in the cat. J Comp Neurol 136: 453–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Osen KK (1970) Course and termination of the primary afferents in the cochlear nuclei of the cat. Arch Ital Biol 108: 21–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Osen KK (1972) Projection of the cochlear nuclei on the inferior colliculus in the cat. J Comp Neurol 144: 355–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Osen KK (1983) Orientation of dendritic arbors studied in Golgi sections of the cat dorsal cochlear nucleus. In: Webster WR, Aitkin LM (eds) Mechanisms of Hearing. Clayton: Monash Univ Press, pp. 83–89.Google Scholar
  70. Osen KK, Ottersen OP, Storm-Mathisen J (1990) Colocalization of glycine-like and GABA-like immunoreactivities. A semiquantitative study of individual neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of cat. In: Ottersen OP, Storm-Mathisen J (eds) Glycine Neurotransmission. New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 417–451.Google Scholar
  71. Ostapoff EM, Morest DK, Potashner SJ (1990) Uptake and retrograde transport of [3H]GABA from the cochlear nucleus to the superior olive in the guinea pig. J Chem Neuroanat 3: 285–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ostapoff EM, Benson CG, Saint Marie RL (1997) GABA- and glycine-immunoreactive projections from the superior olivary complex to the cochlear nucleus in guinea pig. J Comp Neurol 381: 500–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Palmer AR, Jiang D, Marshall DH (1996) Responses of ventral cochlear nucleus onset and chopper units as a function of signal bandwidth. J Neurophysiol 75: 780–794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Parham K, Kim DO (1995) Spontaneous and sound-evoked discharge characteristics of complex-spiking neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the unanesthetized decerebrate cat. J Neurophysiol 73: 550–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Poon PWF, Brugge JF (1993) Sensitivity of auditory nerve fibers to spectral notches. J Neurophysiol 70: 655–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Populin LC, Yin TCT (1998) Behavioral studies of sound localization in the cat. J Neurosci 18: 2147–2160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Ramachandran R, Davis KA, May BJ (1999) Single-unit responses in the inferior colliculus of decerebrate cats I. Classification based on frequency response maps. J Neurophysiol 82: 152–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Reed MC, Blum JJ (1995) A computational model for signal processing by the dorsal cochlear nucleus, I: responses to pure tones. J Acoust Soc Am 97: 425–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rhode WS (1999) Vertical cell responses to sound in cat dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 82: 1019–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rhode WS, Greenberg S (1992) Physiology of the cochlear nucleus. In: Popper AN, Fay RR (eds) The Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neurophysiology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 94–152.Google Scholar
  81. Rhode WS, Kettner RE (1987) Physiological studies of neurons in the dorsal and posteroventral cochlear nucleus of the unanesthetized cat. J Neurophysiol 57: 414–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rhode WS, Smith PH, Oertel D (1983) Physiological response properties of cells labeled intracellularly with horseradish peroxidase in cat dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol 213: 426–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rice JJ, May BJ, Spirou GA, Young ED (1992) Pinna-based spectral cues for sound localization in cat. Hear Res 58: 132–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rice JJ, Young ED, Spirou GA (1995) Auditory-nerve encoding of pinna-based spectral cues: Rate representation of high-frequency stimuli. J Acoust Soc Am 97: 1764–1776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Richter JA, Holtman JR (1982) Barbiturates: their in vivo effects and potential biochemical mechanisms. Neurobiol 18: 275–319.Google Scholar
  86. Roberts RC, Ribak CE (1987) GABAergic neurons and axon terminals in the brain-stem auditory nuclei of the gerbil. J Comp Neurol 258: 267–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Roth GL, Kochhar RK, Hind JE (1980) Interaural time differences: Implications regarding the neurophysiology of sound localization. J Acoust Soc Am 68: 1643–1651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ryugo DK, May SK (1993) The projections of intracellularly labeled auditory nerve fibers to the dorsal cochlear nucleus of cats. J Comp Neurol 329: 20–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ryugo DK, Willard FH (1985) The dorsal cochlear nucleus of the mouse: A light microscopic analysis of neurons that project to the inferior colliculus. J Comp Neurol 242: 381–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Saadé NE, Frangieh AS, Atweh SF, Jabbur SJ (1989) Dorsal column input to cochlear neurons in decerebrate-decerebellate cats. Brain Res 486: 399–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Sachs MB, Abbas PJ (1974) Rate versus level functions for auditory-nerve fibers in cats: tone-burst stimuli. J Acoust Soc Am 56: 1835–1847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Saint Marie RL, Benson CG, Ostapoff EM, Morest DK (1991) Glycine immunoreactive projections from the dorsal to the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. Hear Res 51: 11–28.Google Scholar
  93. Samson FK, Clarey JC, Barone P, Imig TJ (1993) Effects of ear plugging on single-unit azimuth sensitivity in cat primary auditory cortex. I. Evidence for monaural directional cues. J Neurophysiol 70: 492–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Schalk T, Sachs MB (1980) Nonlinearities in auditory-nerve fiber response to bandlimited noise. J Acoust Soc Am 67: 903–913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Shofner WP, Young ED (1985) Excitatory/inhibitory response types in the cochlear nucleus: Relationships to discharge patterns and responses to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. J Neurophysiol 54: 917–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Smith PH, Rhode WS (1989) Structural and functional properties distinguish two types of multipolar cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol 282: 595–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Spirou GA, Young ED (1991) Organization of dorsal cochlear nucleus type IV unit response maps and their relationship to activation by bandlimited noise. J Neurophysiol 65: 1750–1768.Google Scholar
  98. Spirou GA, Davis KA, Nelken I, Young ED (1999) Spectral integration by type II interneurons in dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 82: 648–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sutherland DP, Glendenning KK, Masterton RB (1998a) Role of acoustic striae in hearing: Discrimination of sound-source elevation. Hear Res 120: 86–108.Google Scholar
  100. Sutherland DP, Masterton RB, Glendenning KK (1998b) Role of acoustic striae in hearing: reflexive responses to elevated sound-sources. Behav Brain Res 97: 1–12.Google Scholar
  101. Van Adel BA, Kelly JB (1998) Kainic acid lesions of the superior olivary complex: Effects on sound localization by the albino rat. Behav Neurosci 112: 432–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Voigt HF, Young ED (1980) Evidence of inhibitory interactions between neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 44: 76–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Voigt HF, Young ED (1990) Cross-correlation analysis of inhibitory interactions in dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 64: 1590–1610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Waller HJ, Godfrey DA, Chen K (1996) Effects of parallel fiber stimulation on neurons of rat dorsal cochlear nucleus. Hear Res 98: 169–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Weedman DL, Ryugo DK (1996) Projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in rats: Synapses on granule cell dendrites. J Comp Neurol 371: 311–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Weedman DL, Pongstaporn T, Ryugo DK (1996) Ultrastructural study of the granule cell domain of the cochlear nucleus in rats: Mossy fiber endings and their targets. J Comp Neurol 369: 345–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Weinberg RJ, Rustioni A (1987) A cuneocochlear pathway in the rat. Neurosci 20: 209–219.Google Scholar
  108. Winter IM, Palmer AR (1995) Level dependence of cochlear nucleus onset unit responses and facilitation by second tones or broadband noise. J Neurophysiol 73: 141–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Wouterlood FG, Mugnaini E, Osen KK, Dahl A-L (1984) Stellate neurons in rat dorsal cochlear nucleus studied with combined Golgi impregnation and electron microscopy: synaptic connections and mutual coupling by gap junctions. J Neurocytol 13: 639–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Wright DD, Ryugo DK (1996) Mossy fiber projections from the cuneate nucleus to the dorsal cochlear nucleus of rat. J Comp Neurol 365: 159–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Young ED (1980) Identification of response properties of ascending axons from dorsal cochlear nucleus. Brain Res 200: 23–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Young ED (1998) The cochlear nucleus. In: Shepherd GM (ed) Synaptic Organization of the Brain. New York: Oxford Press, pp. 121–157.Google Scholar
  113. Young ED, Brownell WE (1976) Responses to tones and noise of single cells in dorsal cochlear nucleus of unanesthetized cats. J Neurophysiol 39: 282–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Young ED, Voigt HF (1981) The internal organization of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. In: Syka J, Aitkin L (eds) Neuronal Mechanisms of Hearing. New York: Plenum, pp. 127–133.Google Scholar
  115. Young ED, Voigt HF (1982) Response properties of type II and type III units in dorsal cochlear nucleus. Hear Res 6: 153–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Young ED, Spirou GA, Rice JJ, Voigt HF (1992) Neural organization and responses to complex stimuli in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 336: 407–413.Google Scholar
  117. Young ED, Nelken I, Conley RA (1995) Somatosensory effects on neurons in dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 73: 743–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Young ED, Rice JJ, Tong SC (1996) Effects of pinna position on head-related transfer functions in the cat. J Acoust Soc Am 99: 3064–3076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Young ED, Rice JJ, Spirou GA, Nelken I, Conley RA (1997) Head-related transfer functions in cat: neural representation and the effects of pinna movement. In: Gilkey RH, Anderson TR (eds) Binaural and Spatial Hearing in Real and Virtual Environments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, pp. 475–498.Google Scholar
  120. Yu JJ, Young ED (2000) Linear and nonlinear pathways of spectral information transmission in the cochlear nucleus. Proc Nat Acad Sci 97: 11780–11786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Zhang S, Oertel D (1993a) Cartwheel and superficial stellate cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus of mice: Intracellular recordings in slices. J Neurophysiol 69: 1384–1397.Google Scholar
  122. Zhang S, Oertel D (1993b) Tuberculoventral cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus of mice: Intracellular recordings in slices. J Neurophysiol 69: 1409–1421.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric D. Young
  • Kevin A. Davis

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations