Statistical Description of a Physical System
The mechanico-statistical analysis of a physical system in equilibrium comprises the following steps: (i) The specification of the microscopic states of the system (which form a set called statistical ensemble); (ii) the statement of a statistical postulate in order to use the theory of probabilities — for a system with fixed total energy, we invoke the simplifying assumption of equal a priori probabilities, which leads to the microcanonical ensemble — and (iii) the establishment of a connection with the visible variables of the macroscopic world (that is, with thermodynamics).
KeywordsPhase Space Quantum System Physical System Free Particle Statistical Ensemble
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