Self-Discharge of Electrochemical Capacitors in Relation to that at Batteries
Charged capacitors, like charged batteries, are in a state of high free energy relative to that of the discharged state, so there is a pseudo-driving force for their self-discharge. The driving force is thermodynamically the same as that which provides current and power when the capacitance is discharged through a load resistance, but then the resulting process is one of controlled discharge, which is different from that for spontaneous self-discharge on open circuit. The thermodynamic situation of instability (high free energy) of the charged state is illustrated in Fig. 18.1. The same kind of considerations apply to self-discharge of battery systems, where a similar phenomenon is well known.
KeywordsOpen Circuit Electrochemical Capacitor Potential Recovery Charged Capacitor Capacitor Electrode
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.K. Kinoshita, Carbon: Electrochemical and Physicochemical Properties, Wiley, New York (1988).Google Scholar
- 5.B. E. Conway, in Power Sources, vol. 16 (Brighton Power Sources Conference Proceedings) (1997), Intl. Power Sources Symposium Ltd.Google Scholar
- 7.O. S. Ksenzhek and V. V. Stender, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, 106, 487 (1956); see also Russian J. Phys. Chem., 27, 1089 (1963).Google Scholar
- 8.J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, The Clarendon Press, Oxford (1956).Google Scholar
- 9.H. S. Carlslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, (1947).Google Scholar
- 10.P. Delahay, New Instrumental Methods in Electrochemistry, Chapter 3, Interscience, New York (1954).Google Scholar
- 14.F. G. Will and C. A. Knorr, Zeit.f. Elektrochem., 64, 258 (1960).Google Scholar
- 16.W. G. Pell, T.-C. Liu, and B. E. Conway, in Proc. Sixth Intl. Symposium on Electrochemical Capacitors and Similar Energy Storage Devices, S. Wolsky and N. Marincic, eds., Florida Educational Seminars, Boca Raton, Fla. (1996).Google Scholar
- 24.M. Pourbaix, Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions, Natl. Assoc. Corrosion Engineers, Houston, Tex. (1974 reprint).Google Scholar