Tissue Engineering Techniques for Closure of Bladder Exstrophy
The prenatal diagnosis of patients with the exstrophy-epispadias complex is now more prevalent. Prenatal ultrasonography allows for a thorough survey of fetal anatomy. The absence of bladder filling, a mass of echogenic tissue of the lower abdominal wall or a low set umbilicus during prenatal sonographic examination may suggest the diagnosis of bladder exstrophy. These findings and the presence of intraluminal intestinal calcifications suggest the presence of a cloacal malformation.