The role of the microflora in bacterial vaginosis

  • Gregor Reid
  • Christine Heinemann
Chapter

Abstract

Microbial diseases of the female genital tract are large in number and common in occurrence. They include organisms that are sexually transmitted, such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Herpes simplex virus, HIV, Papillomavirus, Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis (Aynaud, Bijaoui and Huynh, 1993; Graves and Gardner, 1993; Biro, Rosenthal and Kiniyalocts, 1995; Nilsson et al., 1997; Sewankambo et al., 1997).

Keywords

Bacterial Vaginosis Chlamydia Trachomatis Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Vaginal Infection Ureaplasma Urealyticum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alderberth, I., Ahrne, S., Johansson, M.-L. et al (1996) A mannose-specific adherence mechanism in Lactobacillus plantarum conferring binding to the human colonic cell line HT-29. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 62, 2244–2251.Google Scholar
  2. Alger, L. and Pupkin, M. (1986) Etiology of preterm rupture of membranes. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 29, 758–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amsel, R., Totten, P. A., Spiegel, C. A. et al (1983) Nonspecific vaginitis. Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. American Journal of Medicine, 74, 14–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andreu, A., Stapleton, A. E., Fennell, C. L. et al (1995) Hemagglutination, adherence, and surface properties of vaginal Lactobacillus species. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 171, 1237–1243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aynaud, O., Bijaoui, G. and Huynh, B. (1993) Genital bacterial infections associated with papillomavirus: value of screening and basis for treatment. Contraception, Fertilité, Sexualité, 21, 149–152.Google Scholar
  6. Bartlett, J. G., Moon, N. E., Goldstein, P. R. et al (1978) Cervical and vaginal bacterial flora: ecological niches in the female lower genital tract. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 130, 658–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Biro, F. M., Rosenthal, S. L. and Kiniyalocts, M. (1995) Gonococcal and chlamydia genitourinary infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic adolescent women. Clinical Pediatrics, 34, 419–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braun, P., Yhu-Hsiung, L., Klein, J. O. et al,(1971) Birth weight and genital mycoplasmas in pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine,284 167.Google Scholar
  9. Bruce, A. W., Chadwick, P., Hassan, A. and VanCott, G. F. (1973) Recurrent urethritis in women. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 108, 973–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brumfitt, W. (1975) The effects of bacteriuria in pregnancy on maternal and fetal health. Kidney International Supplement, 8, 113.Google Scholar
  11. Calleri, L., Porcelli, A., Gallello, D. et al (1997) Bacterial vaginosis and premature membrane rupture: an open study. Minerva Ginecologica, 49, 19–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Carroll, S. G., Papioannou, S., Ntumazah, I. L. et al (1996) Lower genital tract swabs in the prediction of intrauterine infection in preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 103, 54–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaim, W., Mazor, M. and Leiberman, J. R. (1997) The relationship between bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 259, 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chan, R. C. Y., Reid, G., Irvin, R. T. et al (1985) Competitive exclusion of uro-pathogens from uroepithelial cells by Lactobacillus whole cells and cell wall fragments. Infection and Immunity, 47, 84–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chua, S., Arulkumaran, S., Chow, C. et al (1995) Genital Group B Streptococcus carriage in the antinatal period: its role in PROM and preterm labour. Singapore Medical Journal, 36, 383–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Conway, P. L. and Henriksson, A. (1994) Strategies for the isolation and characterisation of functional probiotics, in Human Health: the Contribution of Microorganisms, (ed. S. A. W. Gibson ), Springer-Verlag, London, pp. 75–93.Google Scholar
  17. Cook, R. L., Harris, R. J. and Reid, G. (1988) Effect of culture media and growth phase on the morphology of lactobacilli and on their ability to adhere to epithelial cells. Current Microbiology, 17 (3), 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cook, R. L., Reid, G., Pond, D. G. et al (1989) Clue cells in bacterial vaginosis: immunofluorescent identification of the adherent Gram-negative bacteria as Gardnerella vaginasis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 160, 490–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Corbishley, C. M. (1977) Microbial flora of the vagina and cervix. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 30, 745–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cox F. (1982) Prevention of group B streptococcal colonization with topically applied lipoteichoic acid in a maternal-newborn mouse model. Pediatric Research, 16, 816–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cuperus, P., van der Mei, H. C., Reid, G. et al (1992) The effect of serial passaging of lactobacilli in liquid medium on their physico-chemical and structural surface characteristics. Cells and Materials, 2, 271–280.Google Scholar
  22. Cuperus, P. L., van der Mei, H. C., Reid, G. et al (1993) Physico-chemical surface characteristics of urogenital and poultry lactobacilli. Journal of Colloids and Interface Science, 156, 319–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elmer, G. W., Surawicz, C. M. and McFarland, L. V. (1996) Biotherapeutic agents: a neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275, 870–876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eschenbach, D. A., Nugent, R. P., Rao, A. V. et al,(1991) A randomized placebo-controlled trial of erythromycin for the treatment of Ureaplasma urealyticum to prevent premature delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology,164, 734–742.Google Scholar
  25. Fair, W. R., Timothy, M. M., Millar, M. A. and Stamey, T. A. (1970) Bacteriologic and hormonal observations of the urethra and vaginal vestibule in normal, premenopausal women. Journal of Urology, 104, 426–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Friedlander, A., Druker, M. M. and Schachter, A. (1986) Lactobacillus acidophilus and vitamin B complex in the treatment of vaginal infection. Panminerva Medica, 28, 51–53.Google Scholar
  27. Fuller, R. (1994) Probiotics: an overview, in Human Health: the Contribution of Microorganisms, (ed. S. A. W. Gibson ), Springer-Verlag, London, pp. 63–74.Google Scholar
  28. Gardner, H. L. and Dukes, C. D. (1955) Haemophilus vaginalis vaginitis: a newly defined specific infection previously classified non-specific vaginitis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 69, 962–976.Google Scholar
  29. Gibbs, R. S. and Eschenbach, D. A. (1997) Use of antibiotics to prevent preterm birth. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 177, 375–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gibbs, R. S., Romero, R., Hillier, S. L. et al (1992) A review of premature birth and subclinical infection. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 166, 1515–1528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Goldenberg, R. L., Klebanoff, M. A., Nugent, R. et al (1996) Bacterial colonization of the vagina during pregnancy in four ethnic groups. Vaginal infections and prematurity. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 174, 1618–1621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goldenberg, R. L., Andrews, W. W., Yuan, A. C. et al (1997) Sexually transmitted diseases and adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Clinical Perinatology, 24, 23–41.Google Scholar
  33. Gorbach, S. L., Menda, K. B., Thadepalli, H. and Keith, L. (1973) Anaerobic microflora of the cervix in healthy women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 117, 1053–1055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Graves, A. and Gardner, W. A. Jr (1993) Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 36, 145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hay, P. E. and Taylor-Robinson, D. (1996) Defining bacterial vaginosis: to BV or not to BV, that is the question. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 7, 233–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hay, P. E., Lamont, R. F., Taylor-Robinson, D. et al (1994) Abnormal bacterial colonisation of the genital tract and subsequent preterm delivery and late miscarriage. British Medical Journal, 308, 295–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Herthelius, M., Gorbach, S. L., Mollby, R. et al (1989) Elimination of vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli by administration of indigenous flora. Infection and Immunity, 57, 2447–2451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hillier, S. L. (1993) Diagnostic microbiology of bacterial vaginosis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 169, 455–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hillier, S. L., Krohn, M. A., Klebanoff, S. J. and Eschenbach, D. A. (1992) The relationship of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli to bacterial vaginosis and genital microflora in pregnant women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 79, 369–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hillier, S. L., Krohn, M. A., Rabe, L. K. et al (1993) The normal vaginal flora, H202-producing lactobacilli, and bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 16 (Suppl. 4), S273 - S281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holst, E., Goffeng, A. R. and Andersch, B. (1994) Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal microorganisms in idiopathic premature labor and association with pregnancy outcome. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 32, 176–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hughes, V. L. and Hillier, S. L. (1990) Microbiologic characteristics of Lactobacillus products used for colonization of the vagina. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 75, 244 248.Google Scholar
  43. Kass, E. H. (1960) Bacteriuria and pyelonephritis of pregnancy. Archives of Internal Medicine, 105, 194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kincaid-Smith, P. and Bullen, M. (1965) Bacteriuria in pregnancy. Lancet, i, 395. Klebanoff, S. J. (1992) Effects of the spermicidal agent nonoxynol-9 on vaginal microbial flora. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 165, 19–25.Google Scholar
  45. Klebanoff, S. J., Hillier, S. L., Eschenbach, D. A. and Waltersdorph, A. M. (1991) Control of the microbial flora of the vagina by H202-generating lactobacilli. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 164, 94–100.Google Scholar
  46. McGregor, J A., French, J. I. and Seo, K. (1993) Premature rupture of membranes and bacterial vaginosis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology,169 463–466.Google Scholar
  47. McGroarty, J. A. (1993) Probiotic use of lactobacilli in the human female urogenital tract. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 6, 251–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McGroarty, J. A. (1994) Cell surface appendages of lactobacilli. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 124, 405–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McGroarty, J. A., Soboh, F., Bruce, A. W. and Reid, G. (1990) The spermicidal compound nonoxynol-9 increases adhesion of Candida species to human epithelial cells in vitro. Infection and Immunity, 58, 2005–2007.Google Scholar
  50. McGroarty, J. A. Tomeczek, L., Pond, D. G. et al (1992) Hydrogen peroxide production by Lactobacillus species, correlation with susceptibility to the spermicidal compound nonoxynol-9. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 165(6), 11421144.Google Scholar
  51. Mardh, P.-A. and Taylor-Robinson, D. (eds) (1984) Bacterial Vaginosis, Almqvist and Wiksell International, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  52. Mohler, R. W. and Brown, C. P. (1932) Döderleiri s bacillus in the treatment of vaginitis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 718–723.Google Scholar
  53. Morris, C. A. and Morris, D. F. (1967) ‘Normal’ vaginal microbiology of women of childbearing age in relation to the use of oral contraceptives and vaginal tampons. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 20, 636–640.Google Scholar
  54. Newton, E. R., Piper, J. and Peairs, W. (1997) Bacterial vaginosis and intraamniotic infection. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 176, 672–677.Google Scholar
  55. Nilsson, U., Hellberg, D., Shoubnikova, M. et al (1997) Sexual behavior risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 24, 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nugent, R. P., Krohn, M. A. and Hillier, S. L. (1991) Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of Gram stain interpretation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 29, 297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. O’Sullivan, M. G., Thornton, G., O’Sullivan, G. C. and Collins, J. K. (1992) Probio- tic bacteria: myth or reality? Trends in Food Science and Technology, 3, 309–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pfau, A. and Sacks, T. (1977) The bacterial flora of the vaginal vestibule, urethra and vagina in the normal premenopausal woman. Journal of Urology, 118, 292–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Priestley, C. J., Jones, B. M., Dhar, J. and Goodwin, L. (1997) What is normal vaginal flora? Genitourinary Medicine, 73, 23–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Regan, J A., Chao, S. and James, L. S. (1981) Premature rupture of membranes, preterm delivery and group B streptococcal colonization of mothers. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology,141 184–186.Google Scholar
  61. Reid, G. (1996) Probiotics: how microorganisms compete. Journal of the American Medical Association, 276, 29–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Reid, G., Cook, R. L. and Bruce, A. W. (1987) Examination of strains of lactobacilli for properties which may influence bacterial interference in the urinary tract. Journal of Urology, 138, 330–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Reid, G., McGroarty, J. A., Angotti, R. and Cook, R. L. (1988) Lactobacillus inhibitor production against E. coli and coaggregation ability with uropathogens. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 34, 344–351.Google Scholar
  64. Reid, G., Bruce, A. W., Cook, R. L. and Llano, M. (1990a) Effect on the urogenital flora of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 22, 43–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Reid, G., McGroarty, J A., Domingue, P. A. G. et al (1990b) Coaggregation of urogenital bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Current Microbiology,20 47–52.Google Scholar
  66. Reid, G., Cuperus, P. L., Bruce, A. W. et al (1992) Comparison of contact angles and adhesion to hexadecane of urogenital, dairy and poultry lactobacilli effect of serial culture passages. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58(5), 15491553.Google Scholar
  67. Reid, G., Servin, A., Bruce, A. W. and Busscher, H. J. (1993) Adhesion of three Lactobacillus strains to human urinary and intestinal epithelial cells. Microbios, 75, 57–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Reid, G., McGroarty, J. A., Tomeczek, L. and Bruce, A. W. (1996) Identification and plasmid profiles of Lactobacillus species from the vagina of 100 women. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 15, 23–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sadhu, K., Domingue, P. A. G., Chow, A. W. et al (1989) A morphological study of the in situ tissue-associated autochthonous microflora of the human vagina. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, 2, 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Saigh, J. H., Sanders, C. C. and Sanders, W. E. (1978) Inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by aerobic and facultatively anaerobic components of the endocervical flora: evidence for a protective effect against infection. Infection and Immunity, 19, 704–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sewankambo, N., Gray, R. H., Wawer, M. J. et al (1997) HIV-1 infection associated with abnormal vaginal flora morphology and bacterial vaginosis. Lancet, 350, 530–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Skarin, A. and Sylwan, J. (1986) Vaginal lactobacilli inhibiting growth of Gardner-ella vaginalis, Mobiluncus and other bacterial species cultured from vaginal content of women with bacterial vaginosis. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, 94, 399–403.Google Scholar
  73. Spiegel, C. A., Amsel, R., Eschenbach, D. et al (1980) Anaerobic bacteria in nonspecific vaginitis. New England Journal of Medicine, 303, 601–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Van der Meijden, W. I. (1984) Clinical aspects of Gardnerella vaginalis-associated vagina is. A review of the literature, in Bacterial Vaginosis, (eds P.-A. Mardh and D. Taylor-Robinson ), Almqvist and Wiksell International, Stockholm, pp. 135141.Google Scholar
  75. Weinberg, E. D. (1997) The Lactobacillus anomaly: total iron abstinence. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 40, 578–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Westrom, L., Evaldson, G., Holmes, K. K. et al (1984) Taxonomy of vaginosis; bacterial vaginosis - a definition, in Bacterial Vaginosis, (eds P.-A. Mardh and D. Taylor-Robinson ), Almqvist and Wiksell International, Stockholm, pp. 259260.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregor Reid
  • Christine Heinemann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations