Colorectal Cancer

  • Gregory L. Brotzman
  • Russell G. Robertson

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to be one of the predominant cancers in the Western world, second only to lung cancer. It was estimated that 133,500 new cases of colorectal cancer would be diagnosed in 1996 and that 54,900 people would die from the disease during the same period.1 Despite advances in early detection, screening, and treatment, these mortality figures have remained relatively constant. The fiscal implications of CRC management are staggering, with approximately $2.72 billion spent on CRC-related care in the United States in 1985.2

Keywords

Colorectal Cancer Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Fecal Occult Blood Testing Colorectal Adenoma Adenomatous Polyp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Parker S, Tong T, Bolden S, Wingo P. Cancer statistics, 1996. CA Cancer J Clin 1996;65:5–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Byers T, Gorsky R. Estimates of costs and effects of screening for colorectal cancer in the United States. Cancer 1992;70: 1288–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fry R, Fleshman J, Kodner I. Cancer of colon and rectum. Clin Symp 1989;41:2–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sandler R, Lyles C, Peipins L, et al. Diet and risk of colorectal adenomas: macronutrients, cholesterol, and fiber. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:884–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vargas P, Alberts D. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer through dietary modification. Cancer 1992;70:1229–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Toribara N, Sleisenger M. Screening for colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 1995;332:861–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to clinical preventative services. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Levin B, Murphy G. Revision of the American Cancer Society recommendations for the early detection of colorectal cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 1992;42:296–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wayne M, Cath A, Pamies R. Colorectal cancer: a practical review for the primary care physician. Arch Fam Med 1995; 4:357–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lieberman D, Smith F. Screening asymptomatic subjects for colon malignancy with colonoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86:946–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sinnige H, Mulder N. Colorectal carcinoma: an update. Neth J Med 1991;38:217–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Winawer S, Zauber A, Gerdes H, et al. Risk of colorectal cancer in the families of patients with adenomatous polyps. N Engl J Med 1996;334:82–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stryker S, Wolff B, Culp C, et al. Natural history of untreated colonic polyps. Gastroenterology 1987;93:1009–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pennazio M, Arrigoni A, Risio M, Spandre M, Rossini F. Small rectosigmoid polyps as markers of proximal neoplasms. Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36:1121–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peterson G, Boyd P. Gene tests and counseling for colorectal cancer risk: lessons from familial polyposis. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;17:67–71.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alberts D, Ritenbaugh C, Story J, et al. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of effect of wheat bran fiber and calcium on fecal bile acids in patients with resected adenomatous colon polyps. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 88:81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm E, Ascherio A, Stampfer M, Colditz G, Willett W. Alcohol, low-methionine-low-folate diets, and risk of colon cancer in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:265–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Levin K, Dozois R. Epidemiology of large bowel cancer. World J Surg 1991;15:562–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kune G, Vitetta L. Alcohol consumption and the etiology of colorectal cancer: a review of the scientific evidence from 1957 to 1991. Nutr Cancer 1992;18:97–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martinez M, McPherson S, Annegers J, Levin B. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption as risk factors for colorectal adenomatous polyps. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87: 274–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Levin B, Murphy G. Revision in American Cancer Society recommendations for the early detection of colorectal cancer. Ca Cancer J Clin 1992;42:296–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    DeCosse J, Tsioulias G, Jacobson J. Colorectal cancer: detection, treatment and rehabilitation. CA Cancer J Clin 1994;44: 27–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bachwich D, Lichtenstein G, Traber P. Cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. Med Clin North Am 1994;78:1399–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Axtell L, Chiazze L. Changing relative frequency of cancers of the colon and rectum in the United States. Cancer 1966; 19:750–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rosato F, Marks G. Changing site distribution patterns of colorectal cancer at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. Dis Colon Rectum 1981;24:93–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tedesco F, Wayne J, Avella J, Villalobos M. Diagnostic implications of the spatial distribution of colonic mass lesions (polyps and cancers): a prospective colonoscopic study. Gastroenterol Endosc 1980;26:95–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cho K, Vogelstein B. Genetic alterations in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Cancer 1992;70:1727–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Simon J. Occult blood screening for colorectal carcinoma: a critical review. Gastroenterology 1985;88:820–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Van Dam J, Bond J, Sivak M. Fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:2389–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mandel J, Bond J, Church T, et al. Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for fecal occult blood. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1365–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Freedman S. The role of barium enema in detecting colorectal disease: a radiologist’s perspective. Postgrad Med 1992; 92:245–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Selby J, Friedman G, Quesenberry C, Weiss N. A case-control study of screening sigmoidoscopy and mortality from colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 1992;326:653–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Barthel J, Hinojosa T, Shah N. Colonoscope length and procedure efficiency. J Clin Gastroenterol 1995;21:30–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Deans G, Parks T, Rowlands B, Spence R. Prognostic factors in colorectal cancer. Br J Surg 1992;79:608–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kronborg O. Staging and surgery for colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer 1993;29A:575–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hermanek P, Sobin L, Flemming I. What do we need beyond TNM? Cancer 1996;77:815–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Moertel C. Large bowel. In: Foley J, Vose J, Armitage J, editors. Current therapy in cancer. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1994:74–7.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    AbdAlla E, Blair E, Jones R, Sue-Ling H, Johnston D. Mechanism of synergy of levamisole and fluorouracil: induction of human leukocyte antigen class I in colorectal cancer cell line. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:489–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Verschraegen C, Pazdur R. Medical management of colorectal carcinomas. Tumori 1994;80:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Winawer S, St. John D, Bond J, et al. Prevention of colorectal cancer: guidelines based on new data. WHO Bull OMS 1995; 73:7–10.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Newcomb G, Storer B. Postmenopausal hormone use and risk of large-bowel cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:1067–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Thun M, Namboodiri M, Heath C. Aspirin use and reduced risk of fatal colon cancer. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1593–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tonelli F, Valanzano R, Dolara P. Sulindac therapy of colorectal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis. Dig Dis 1994; 12:259–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory L. Brotzman
  • Russell G. Robertson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations