Headache

  • Anne D. Walling

Abstract

Headache is an almost universal experience, afflicting patients of any age or characteristic, although it is reported to be particularly frequent in young adults. Nearly 60% of men and 76% of women aged 12 to 29 years report at least one headache within any 4-week period.1 The societal costs of headache are enormous but can be estimated only indirectly in terms of days lost from work or school, expenditures on medical services, and consumption of nonprescription medications. The total burden of suffering due to this symptom, including disruption of relationships and loss of normal activities, is incalculable. Although headache is given as the principal reason for more than 10 million physician office visits per year2 and is consistently found to be one of the most frequent presenting complaints in family practice,3 it is important to realize that most headache episodes are not brought to medical attention.

Keywords

Cluster Headache Migraine Attack Migraine Patient Family Practice Headache Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Diamond S, Feinberg DT. The classification, diagnosis and treatment of headaches. Med Times 1990;118:15–27.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1991 Summary. Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, 1994:21. DHSS Report No. (PHS)94–177.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Strayhorn G. Headache. In: Sloane PD, Slatt LM, Curtis P, editors. Essentials of family medicine. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1993:185–93.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Olesen J. Understanding the biologic basis of migraine. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1713–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Appenzeller O. Pathogenesis of migraine. Med Clin North Am 1991;75:763–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Silberstein SD. Office management of benign headache. Postgrad Med 1996;93:223–40.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O’Dowd TC. Five years of heartsink patients in general practice. BMJ 1988;297:528–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Graham JR. Headaches. In: Noble J, editor. Textbook of primary care medicine. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1996:1283–319.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    McWhinney IR. A textbook of family medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. Classification and diagnostic criteria for all headache disorders, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. Cephalgia 1988;8(S7):1–96.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clough C. Non-migrainous headaches [editorial] BMJ 1989; 299:70–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Diamond S, Dalessio DJ, editors. The practicing physician’s approach to headache. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1992.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Becker L, Iverson DC, Reed FM, et al. Patients with new headache in primary care: a report from ASPN. J Fam Pract 1988;27:41–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Prager JM, Mikulis DJ. The radiology of headache. Med Clin North Am 1991;75:525–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    NIH Consensus Development Panel. Computer tomographic scanning of the brain. In: Proceedings from NIH Consensus Development Conference, NIH, Bethesda. Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1982:4:2.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Silberstein SD, Lipton RB. Overview of diagnosis and treatment of migraine. Neurology 1994;44 Suppl 7:56–16.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Raskin NH. Headache. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone,1988.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blau J. Migraine: theories of pathogenesis. Lancet 1992;339: 1202–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith R. Chronic headaches in family practice. J Am Board Fam Pract 1992;5:589–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lance JW. Treatment of migraine. Lancet 1992;393:1207–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cady RK, Shealy CN. Recent advances in migraine management. J Fam Pract 1993;36:85–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tfelt-Hansen P, Henry P, Mulder LJ, et al. The effectiveness of combined oral lysine acetylsalicylate and metoclopramide compared with oral sumatriptan for migraine. Lancet 1995;346:923–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Walling AD. Cluster headaches. Am Fam Physician 1993;47: 1457–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kudrow L. Diagnosis and treatment of cluster headache. Med Clin North Am 1991;75:579–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne D. Walling

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations