Osteoporosis is a condition of reduced bone density and increased susceptibility to fractures without abnormal mineralization of bone matrix.1 The World Health Organization (WHO) defines osteoporosis as the presence of a bone mineral density (BMD) at least 2.5 standard deviations below the mean BMD for young adults.2 Osteoporosis affects an estimated 20 million to 25 million people in the United States, particularly postmenopausal women and the elderly of both sexes.3 Its most common serious manifestations are fractures of the hip, forearm, and vertebrae. Measures taken at several critical periods during the life cycle, especially childhood, the climacteric, and old age, have the potential to prevent osteoporotic fractures. Therefore family physicians are in a key position for preventing and treating this disease.
KeywordsBone Mineral Density Bone Mass Osteoporotic Fracture Calcium Intake Quantitative Compute Tomography
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.World Health Organization. Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: report of a WHO study group. WHO Techn Rep Ser 1994;No. 843:1–6.Google Scholar
- 4.Lufkin EG, Zilkoski M. Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. American Academy of Family Physicians, Kansas City, MO: American Academy of Family Physicians, 1996. American Family Physician Monograph No. 1.Google Scholar
- 6.Jackson JA, Kleerekoper M. Osteoporosis in men: diagnosis, pathophysiology, and prevention. Medicine (Baltimore) 1990; 69:137–52.Google Scholar
- 10.Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. Nutrition during pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990:318–35.Google Scholar
- 11.Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. Nutrition during lactation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991:204–6.Google Scholar
- 16.Bauer RL. Assessing osteoporosis. Hosp Pract 1991;26 Suppl 1:23–9.Google Scholar
- 19.Grisso JA, Attie M. Prevention of osteoporotic fractures. In: Lavizzo-Mourey R, Day S, Diserens D, Grisso JA, editors. Practicing prevention for the elderly. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus, 1989:107–23.Google Scholar
- 20.US Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to clinical preventive services. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996: 509–16, 829–43.Google Scholar
- 26.National Osteoporosis Foundation. Bone densitometry and its use in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis Clin Updates 1996; l (3):l–4.Google Scholar
- 28.Preventing and treating osteoporosis: what every woman needs to know. Older Women’s League (OWL), 666 11th Street NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20001,1994:1–20. Women’s Health Education Series.Google Scholar
- 35.Optimal calcium intake. NIH consensus statement. 1994, June 6–8;12(4):l-31.Google Scholar
- 36.Calcium supplements. Med Lett 1989;31:101–3.Google Scholar