Although many patients have hypertension, a small subset will have surgical causes for their problem. A thorough history may determine if a patient has a possible endocrine cause, such as hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, hyperaldosteronism, or Cushing’s disease. These entities may be suspected because of symptoms unique to each of these conditions, and are confirmed by laboratory and specific stimulatory tests which establish the proper diagnosis. Each of these endocrine conditions are dealt with specifically in their own chapter.
KeywordsRenal Artery Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Renal Vein Renovascular Hypertension Renin Release
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