Dynamics of Environmental Repletion of Iodine

Four Years’ Experience of Iodination of Irrigation Water in Hotien, Xinjiang, China
  • Xin-min Jiang
  • Xue-yi Cao
  • Jiung Jiang
  • Tai Ma
  • David W. James
  • Murdone abdul Rakeman
  • Zhi-hong Dou
  • Mahmud Mamette
  • Kareem Amette
  • Ming-li Zhang
  • G. Robert DeLong
Part of the Contemporary Endocrinology book series (COE, volume 2)

Abstract

Southern Xinjiang province of the People’s Republic of China is an area of severe iodine deficiency. The people, who are Uygurs, China’s largest minority group, are rural, poor, isolated, and self-subsistent on iodine-deficient desert land entirely dependent on irrigation (1). We previously reported studies from the Hotien region of southern Xinjiang describing the parameters of iodine deficiency disease, indicating that 8–11 Yo of infants have definite neurological deficits and 25–30% have microcephaly, attributable to iodine deficiency (2). Soil iodine content is in the range of 7–32 µg/kg; water iodine 1–1.5 µg/L, and urine iodine excretion in some villages has a median value less than 10 µg/L, the lower limit of measurement. Usual methods of iodine supplementation have failed, including iodized salt, injection of iodine in oil, and oral iodine-in-oil capsules, because of distribution difficulties, cost, suspicions by some people that the supplements contained contraceptives, and the preference of the population for their traditional source, rock salt from the desert floor, which is low in iodine. Faced with these difficulties, we devised a method of providing iodine to the population by adding iodine to irrigation water in order to increase iodine content of soil, crops, domestic animals, and the people.

Keywords

Iodine Deficiency Iodine Concentration Iodine Content Urinary Iodine Urinary Iodine Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    Cao XM, Jiang XM, Amette K, Dou ZH, Rakeman MA, Zhang ML, Ma T, O’Donnell K, DeLong N, DeLong GR. Iodination of irrigation water as a method of supplying iodine to a severely iodine-deficient population in Xinjiang, China. Lancet 1994; 334; 107–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Cao XY, Jiang XM, Dou ZH, Rakeman MA, Zhang ML, O’Donnell K, Ma T, Amette K, DeLong N, DeLong GR. Timing of vulnerability of the brain to iodine deficiency in endemic cretinism. N Eng J Med 1994; 331: 1739–1744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Fuge R, Johnson CC. The geochemistry of iodine—a review. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 1986; 88: 3 1–54.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin-min Jiang
  • Xue-yi Cao
  • Jiung Jiang
  • Tai Ma
  • David W. James
  • Murdone abdul Rakeman
  • Zhi-hong Dou
  • Mahmud Mamette
  • Kareem Amette
  • Ming-li Zhang
  • G. Robert DeLong

There are no affiliations available

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