Indexing Diffraction Patterns

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter

Abstract

Since the strength of TEM is that you can obtain both crystallographic data and an image from the same part of your specimen, a method for interpreting the DP is essential. The first step in any interpretation is to index your pattern. You can proceed in several ways, depending on how much information you already know about your specimen. We will begin the chapter by considering the experimental approach with the aim of being able to identify shortcuts whenever possible. The experienced microscopist will readily identify many patterns just by looking at them, but will still need to index new patterns or to identify unfamiliar ones. The fastest and most efficient experimental approach may take advantage of several concepts covered in the preceding two chapters and the following three.

Keywords

Orientation Relationship Zone Axis Radial Distribution Function Great Circle Stereographic Projection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

General References

  1. Andrews, K.W., Dyson, D.J., Keown, S.R. (1971) Interpretation of Electron Diffraction Patterns, 2nd edition, Plenum Press, New York. An essential resource for anyone using electron diffraction.Google Scholar
  2. Burger, M.J. (1978) Elementary Crystallography, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. One of the classics.Google Scholar
  3. Cullity, B.D. (1978) Elements of X-ray Diffraction, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts. The standard text on X-ray analysis.Google Scholar
  4. Edington, J.W. (1976) Practical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science,Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Part 2 of the book is full of useful hints and examples.Google Scholar
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Specific References

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References for Crystallographic Data

  1. Stereographic projections and the Wulff net can be obtained from SPI Supplies, P.O. Box 656, Westchester, Pennsylvania 19831–0656 ( 1800 242 4774 ).Google Scholar
  2. Donnay, J.D.H., Ondik, H.M. (1972) Crystal Data: Determinative Tables, 3rd edition, National Bureau of Standards, US Dept. of Commerce, Washington, DC. This source lists the ratios of lattice parameters for different materials.Google Scholar
  3. Wells, A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry, 6th edition, Oxford University Press, New York. The source for crystal-structure data in inorganic materials.Google Scholar
  4. Villars, P.,Calvert, L.D. (1985) Pearson’s Handbook of Crystallographic Data for Intermetallic Phases, ASM, Metals Park, Ohio is now in many volumes covering an ever-growing number of materials.Google Scholar
  5. ICDD Powder Diffraction File is produced by the Intemational Center for Diffraction Data (Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1990 ). It is available in various formats. Most researchers favor the CD-ROM version.Google Scholar
  6. ICDD Elemental and Lattice Spacing Index is produced by the same Center but is only presently available in printed form. This index used to be known as the ASTM cards (3“ by 5” index cards!). Each file gives the d-spacings and X-ray diffraction peak intensities. These files should be in a more useful computer-accessible form.Google Scholar
  7. NIST Crystal Data can be purchased as a CD-ROM or on tape. Parts are from the Donnay-Ondik books (see above). A program called NBS*SEARCH will allow you to search this database. These files give not only crystallographic data but also physical data on more than 100,000 organic and inorganic materials. Obtainable from NIST Crystal Data Center, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899.Google Scholar
  8. NIST/Sandia/ICDD Electron Diffraction Database has become available thanks to the tireless efforts of M. Can, who has also provided methods for searching this database on a PC.Google Scholar
  9. Desktop Microscopist (see Section 1.5). This program can look up crystal data and plot out the diffraction pattern.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Williams
    • 1
  • C. Barry Carter
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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