This paper describes design techniques for low-voltage bipolar Operational Amplifiers (OpAmps). The common-mode (CM) input voltage of the OpAmp must be able to have any value that fits within the supply voltage range. An input stage capable of realizing this is discussed. The OpAmp should also have a rail-to-rail output voltage range. The multi-path-driven output stage, which is discussed here has a high bandwidth and a high gain. Miller compensation is used to split the pole frequencies of the OpAmp. Finally, two realizations are discussed and a Figure of merit is defined to enable a comparison of the OpAmps’ performances.
KeywordsSupply Voltage Output Stage Input Stage Current Gain Input Pair
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