Nutrition

  • Cynthia T. Henderson

Abstract

As the number of older adults in the United States and industrialized world increases along with increasing health care expenditures, the need for guidance on health promotion and maintenance for these individuals also grows. While promotion of good nutrition, exercise, and healthy habits is routinely advanced, there is a considerable gap between empiric advice and the scientific data to support specific recommendations. More research is needed to define the needs of elderly persons at different decades of life. The impact of chronic illness, medications, and alterations in functional ability on nutritional needs, nutritional status, and dietary prescriptions is not clearly defined in the older individual. Among healthy elderly individuals, the variation in dietary needs and nutritional status as a function of the type and degree of physical exercise needs clarification. Furthermore, such research must delineate clinical approaches to nutritional problems in elders as a function of the setting in which they primarily are seen for medical evaluation. For example, studies are needed of elders in long-term care facilities that not only stratify them according to level of care and activity, but also examine the effects of intercurrent illness and dietary intake on nutrient needs and clinical outcomes.

Keywords

Nursing Home Elderly Person Total Parenteral Nutrition Zinc Deficiency Basal Metabolic Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Harman D. Nutritional implications of the free-radical theory of aging. JAm Coll Nutr 1982; 1: 27–34.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Masoro EJ. Food restriction and the aging process. JAm 22. Geriatr Soc 1984; 32: 296–300.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Henschen F. Geographic and historical pathology of ar 23. teriosclerosis. J Gerontol 1953; 8: 1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Food and Nutrition Board. Recommended Dietary Al 24. lowances. 9th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; 1980.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    National Institutes of Health, Consensus Development Conference Statement. Osteoporosis. JAMA 1984; 252: 25. 799–802.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clark NGT, Rapaport, JI, DiScala C, et al. Nutritional support of the chronically ill elderly female at risk for 26. elective or urgent surgery. JAm Coll Nutr 1988; 7: 17–26.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Constantian MB, ed. Pressure Ulcers: Principles and Techniques of Management. Boston, Mass: Little Brown 27. & Co Inc; 1980.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alpers DH, Clouse RE, Stenson WF. Manual of Nutritional Therapeutics. Boston, Mass: Little Brown & Co Inc; 1983. 28.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Durnin JVGA. Body composition and energy expenditure in elderly people. Bibl Nutr Dieta 1983; 33: 16–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    National Institutes of Health, Consensus Development 29. Conference Statement. Lowering blood cholsterol to prevent heart disease. JAMA 1985; 253: 2080–2086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. Dietary fat 30. and the risk of heart cancer. NEngl Med 1987; 316: 22–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hill C, Greco RS, Brooks DL. Alleviation of constipation in the elderly by dietary fiber supplementation. J Am 31. Geriatr Soc 1980; 28: 410–414.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kirby RW, Anderson JW, Sieling B, et al. Oat bran selec- 32. tively lowers serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 824–829. 33.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anderson JW, Zettwock H, Feldman T. Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid for hy- percholesterolemic men. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:292 34. 297.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kay RM, Grobin W, Track NS. Diets rich in natural fibre improve carbohydrate tolerance in maturity onset non- 35. insulin dependent diabetes. Diabetologia 1981; 20: 18–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Young VR. Impact of aging on protein metabolism. In: Armbrecht HJ, Prendergast JM, Coe RM, eds. Nutri 36. tional Intervention in the Aging Process. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY/Inc; 1984: 27–48.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lindeman RD, Tobin J, Shock NW. Longitudinal study 37. on the rate of decline in renal function with age. J Am Geriatr Soc 1985; 33: 278–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tobin J, Spector D. Dietary protein has no effect on future creatinine clearance. Gerontologist 1986;26 (suppl):59. Abstract. 38.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barragry JM, France MW, Corless D. Intestinal cholecal ciferol absorption in elderly and younger adults. Clin Sci 1978; 55: 2133–2220.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Parfitt AM, Gallagher JC, Heaney RP. Vitamin D and bone health in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36: 1014–1031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reid JR, Gallagher DJA, Bosworth J. Prophylaxis against vitamin D deficiency in the elderly by regular sunlight exposure. Age Ageing 1986; 15: 35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Offerman G, Pinto V, Kruse R. Antiepileptic drugs and vitamin D supplementation. Epilepsia 1979; 20: 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Older MWJ, Dickerson JWT. Thiamine and the elderly orthopaedic patient. Age Ageing 1982; 11: 101–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baker H, Frank O Inderjit S, et al. Vitamin profiles in elderly persons living at home or in nursing homes, versus profiles in healthy young subjects. J Am Geriatr Soc 1979; 27: 444–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rosenberg IH, Bowman BB, Cooper BA, et al. Folate nutrition in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36: 1060–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smith JL, Wickiser AA, Korth LL, et al. Nutritional status of an institutionalized aged population. J Am Coll Nutr 1984; 3: 13–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carmel R. Pernicious anemia. The expected findings of very low serum cobalamin levels, anemia, and macrocytosis are often lacking. Arch Intern Med 1988; 148: 1712 1714.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Garry PJ, Goodwin JS, Hunt WC, et al. Nutritional status in a healthy elderly population: vitamin C. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36: 332–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Newton H, Schorah CJ, Habibzadeh N, et al. The cause and correction of low blood vitamin C concentrations in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 42: 656–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jacques PF, Hartz, SC, McGandy RB, et al. Ascorbic acid, HDL, and total plasma cholesterol in the elderly. JAm Coll Nutr 1987; 6: 169–174.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Spencer H, Kramer L, Lesniak M, et al. Calcium requirements in humans. Clin Orthop 1984; 184: 270–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Avioli LV, Calcium and phosphorus. In: Shils ME, Young VR eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1988: 142–158.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Borchgrevink PC, Jyunge P. Acquired magnesium deficiency and myocardial tolerance to ischemia. J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6: 355–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Prasad AS. Zinc in growth and development and spectrum of human zinc deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr 1988; 7: 377–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wagner PA, Krista ML, Bailey LB, et al. Zinc status of elderly black Americans from urban low-income households. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33: 1771–1777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bales CW, Steinman LC, Freeland-Graves JH. The effect of age on plasma zinc uptake and taste acuity. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 44: 664–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Singer JD, Granahan P, Goodrich N, Diet and Iron Status: A Study of Relationships: United States, 1971–74 Hyattsville, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Feller AG, Rudman D, Erve PR. Subnormal concentra- tions of serum selenium and plasma carnitine in chronically tube-fed patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45: 476–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bunker VW, Lawson MS, Delves HT, et al. The uptake and excretion of chromium by the elderly Am J Clin Nutr 1984; 39: 797–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Adams CE. Physician Services in the Long-Term Care Facility. Washington, DC: American Health Care Association; 1978.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bowen PE, Mobarhan S, Henderson C, et al. Hypocarotenemia in patients fed enterally with commercial liquid diets. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1988; 12: 485–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rodin J. Aging and health: effects of the sense of control. Science 1986;233:1271–1276.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Illinois Dept of Aging. Elder Abuse and Neglect: The Illinois Response. Springfield, Ill: 1987.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Henderson CT. Nutrition and malnutrition in the elderly nursing home patient. Clin Geriatr Med 1988; 4: 527–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Andres R. Effect of obesity on total mortality. Int J Obes 1980; 4: 381–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Silver AJ, Morley JE, Strome S, Nutritional status in an academic nursing home. J Am Geriatr Soc 1988; 36: 487–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dwyer JT, Coleman KA, Krall E, Changes in relative weight among institutionalized elderly adults. J Geronto11987; 42: 246–250.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Friedman PJ, Campbell AG, Caradoc-Davies TH. Prospective trial of a new diagnostic criterion for severe wasting malnutrition in the elderly. Age Ageing 1985; 14: 149–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Siebens H, Trupe E, Siebens A. Correlates and consequences of eating dependency in institutionalized elderly. JAm Geriatr Soc 1986; 32: 192–198.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    US Congress Office of Technology Assessment. Nutritional support and hydration. In: US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Life Sustaining Technologies and the Elderly, OTA-BA-306. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1987: 275–329.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Michaelsson E, Norberg A, Norberg B. Feeding methods for demented patients in end stage of life. Geriatr Nurs (New York) 1987; 8: 69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rudman D, Mattson DE, Nagraj HS,. Antecedents of death in the men of a Veterans Administration nursing home. JAm Geriatr Soc 1987; 35: 496–502.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Centers for Disease Control. Ten-State Nutrition Survey in the United States, 1968–1970, IV: Biochemical. Atlanta, Ga: US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare publication HSM 72–8132;1972.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pinchcovsky-Devin GD, Kaminski MV. Incidence of protein calorie malnutrition in the nursing home population. J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6: 109–121.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lipschitz DA. Nutrition, aging and the immunohematopoietic system. Clin Geriatr Med 1987; 3: 319–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Krasinski SD, Russell RM, Samloff M, et al. Fundic atrophic gastritis in an elderly population: effect on hemogobin and several serum nutritional indicators. J Am Geriatr Soc 1986; 34: 800–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Roberts-Thomason IC, Whittingham S, Youngchaiyued U, et al. Ageing, immune response, and mortality. Lancet 1974; 2: 368–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lipschitz DA, Mitchell CO. The correctability of the nutritional, immune and hematopoietic manifestations of protein calorie malnutrition in the elderly. JAm Coll Nutr 1982; 1: 17–25.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lipschitz DA, Mitchell CO, Steele RW, et al. Nutritional evaluation and supplementation of elderly subjects participating in a `Meals on Wheels’ program. JPEN J Par-enter Enteral Nutr 1985; 9: 343–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Weinsier RL, Hunker EM, Krumdieck CL, et al. Hospital malnutrition: a prospective evaluation of general medical patients during the course of hospitalization. Am J Clin Nutr 1979; 32: 418–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Reilly JJ, Hull SF, Albert N, et al. Economic impact of malnutrition: a model system for hospitalized patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1988; 12: 371–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Morgan KJ, Zabik ME, Stampley GL. Breakfast consumption patterns of older Americans. J Nutr Eld 1986; 5: 19–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bastow MD, Rawlings J, Allison SP. Benefits of supplementary tube feeding after fractured neck of femur: a randomized controlled trial. Br Med J Clin Res 1983; 287: 1589–1592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ciocon JO, Silverstone FA, Graver LM, et al. Tube feedings in elderly patients: indications, benefits and complications. Arch Intern Med 1988; 148: 429–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Larson DE, Barton DD, Schroeder KW, et al. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: indications, success, complications, and mortality in 314 consecutive patients. Gastroenterology 1987; 93: 48–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sriram K, Hammond J. Leakage of feedings and gastric contents through ostomy sites. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1987; 10: 437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cataldi-Betcher EL, Seltzer MH, et al. Complications occurring during enteral nutrition support: a prospective study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1983; 7: 546–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Brinson RR, Curtis D, Singh M. Diarrhea in the intensive care unit: the role of hypoalbuminemia and the response to a chemically defined diet (case reports and review of the literature). JAm Coll Nutr 1987; 6: 517–523.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Feibusch JM, Holt PR. Impaired absorptive capacity for carbohydrate in the aging human. Dig Dis Sci 1982; 27: 1095–1100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Verdery RB, Rogers E, Goldberg A. Metabolic profile and body composition predict decubiti and death in elderly nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 1987; 35:89.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pinchcovsky-Devin GD, Kaminski MV. Correlation of pressure sores and nutritional status. J Am Geriatr Soc 1986; 34: 435–440.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Groher ME, Bukatman R. The prevalence of swallowing disorders in two teaching hospitals. Dysphagia 1986; 1: 3–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Litchford MD, Wakefield LM. Nutrient intakes and energy expenditures of residents with senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. J Am Diet Assoc 1987; 87: 211–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Metropolitan H, Tables W, 1984 Stat Bull Metrop Insur Co, 64, 2–9.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    National Center for Health Statistics, Carroll AS, Najjar MF, Fulwood R. Weight by height and age for adults 554 Cynthia T. Henderson 18–74 years, United States, 1971–74. Vital Health Stat 11 1983.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Milne JS, Lauder IJ. Factors associated with mortality in older people. Age Ageing 1988; 7: 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Dayton S, Pearce ML, Hashimoto S,. A controlled clinical trial of a diet high in unsaturated fat in preventing complications of atherosclerosis. Circulation 1969;40 (suppl 2): II-MI-63.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Suitor CJW, Crowley MF. Promoting sound eating habits in different sociocultural situations. In: Nutrition: Principles and Application in Health Promotion Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1984; 91–105.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kwan E, Loughrey KA, Brownstein H, et al. Collecting dietary information from non-English speaking elderly. J Nutr Elder 1985; 5: 21–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia T. Henderson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations