Retinal Blood Flow

  • Charles E. Riva
  • Benno L. Petrig
  • Juan E. Grunwald
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 107)

Abstract

In ophthalmology, laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) has been used for various types of measurements besides those of blood velocity. For example, it has been applied to investigate eye motion during smooth pursuit of a target [1] and the mechanical compliance of the optic nerve head [2]. However, most of the efforts have been directed to investigations of ocular fundus hemodymanics, the subject of this chapter. Some of the readers may not be familiar with the vascular system of the eye. It thus seems appropriate to begin with a brief description of this system. For more details, the reader is referred to the chapter “Ocular Circulation” by Alm and Bill in Adler’s Physiology of the Eye [3].

Keywords

Optic Nerve Head Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Vessel Laser Doppler Velocimetry Fundus Camera 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Riva, C. E., G.T. Timberlake, and G.T. Feke. 1979. Laser Doppler technique for measurement of eye movement. Appl Optics 18:2486–2490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zeimer, R., J.T. Wilenski, M.F. Goldberg, and S. A. Solin. 1981. Noninvasive measurement of optic nerve-head compliance by laser Doppler velocimetry. J Opt Soc Am [A] 71:499–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alm, A., and A. Bill. 1975. The ocular circulation. In Adler’s Physiology of the Eye-Clinical Application, Moses, R.A., ed. St. Louis: CV Mosby, p 210.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hickam, J.B., and R. Frayser. 1966. Studies of the retinal circulation in man: Observation on vessel diameter, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and mean circulation time. Circulation 33:302–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bulpitt, C.J., and C.T. Dollery. 1971. Estimation of retinal blood flow by measurement of the mean circulation time. Cardiovasc Res 5:406–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Riva, C. E., G.T. Feke, and I. Ben-Sira. 1978. Fluorescein dye-dilution technique and retinal circulation. Am J Physiol 234(3) (Heart Circ Physiol 3(3)):H315–H322.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Flower, R.W. 1972. Infrared absorption angiography of the choroid and some observations on the effect of high intraocular pressures. Am J Ophthalmol 74:600–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Riva, C.E., B. Ross, and G. Benedek. 1972. Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 11:936–944.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tanaka, T., C.E. Riva, and I. Ben-Sira. 1974. Blood velocity measurements in human retinal vessels. Science 186:830–831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Riva, C. E., and B.L. Petrig. Retinal blood flow: Laser Doppler velocimetry and blue field simulation technique. In New Developments in Noninvasive Studies to Evaluate Ocular Function, Masters, B., ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, in press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Feke, G. T., and C. E. Riva. 1978. Laser Doppler measurements of blood velocity in human retinal vessels. J Opt Soc Am 68:526–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Benedek, G. 1969. Optical mixing spectroscopy, with applications to problems in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. In Polarisation, Matiere et Rayonnement, volume jubilaire en l’honneur d’Alfred Kastler, French Physical Society, ed. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp 49–84.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lastovka, J.B. 1967. Light mixing spectroscopy and the spectrum of light scattered by thermal fluctuations in liquids. Ph. D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Riva, C.E., G.T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Benary. 1979. Bidirectional LDV system for absolute measurement of retinal blood speed. Appl Optics 18:2302–2306.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Riva, C. E., J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B.L. Petrig. 1985. Blood velocity and volumetric flow rate in human retinal vessels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 26:1124–1132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Petrig, B. L., and C. E. Riva. 1988. Retinal laser Doppler velocimetry: Towards its computer assisted clinical use. Appl Optics 27:1126–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Riva, C. E., and G.T. Feke. 1981. Laser Doppler velocimetry in the measurement of retinal blood flow. In Current Laser Technology in Medicine and Surgery, Goldman, L., ed. New York: Springer, pp 135–161.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Feke, G. T., D.G. Goger, H. T. Tagawa, and F.C. Delori. 1987. Laser Doppler technique for absolute measurement of blood speed in retinal vessels. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng BME34:673–680.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Riva, C. E., J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and K. O’Keefe. 1981. Fundus camera based retinal laser Doppler velocimeter. Appl Optics 20:117–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Riva, C. E., B.L. Petrig, and J. E. Grunwald. 1987. Near infrared retinal laser Doppler velocimetry. Lasers Ophthalmol 1:211–215.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Van de Hulst, H.C. 1957. Light Scattering by Small Particles. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Riva, C.E., R.D. Shonat, B.L. Petrig, and C.J. Pournaras. 1989. Scattering process in LDV from retinal vessels. Appl Optics.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bonner, R., and R. Nossal. 1981. Model for laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in tissue. Appl Optics 21:2097–2107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stern, M.D. 1985. Laser Doppler velocimetry in blood and multiply scattering fluids: Theory Appl Optics 24:1968–1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Riva, C. E., J. E. Grunwald, and S.H. Sinclair. 1983. Laser Doppler velocimetry study of the effect of pure oxygen breathing on retinal blood flow. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 24:47–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Riva, C.E., C.J. Pournaras, and M. Tsacopoulos. 1986. Regulation of local oxygen tension and blood flow in the inner retina during hyperoxia. J Appl Physiol 61(2):592–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Robinson, F., C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, B.L. Petrig, and S. H. Sinclair. 1986. Retinal blood flow autoregulation in response to an acute increase in blood pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 27:722–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Riva, C.E., J.E. Grunwald, and B.L. Petrig. 1986. Autoregulation of human retinal blood flow. An investigation with laser Doppler velocimetry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 27:1706–1712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Feke, G.T., R. Zuckerman, G.T. Green, and J.J. Weiter. 1983. Response of human retinal blood flow to light and dark. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 24:136–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Riva, C. E., J. E. Grunwald, and B.L. Petrig. 1983. Reactivity of the human retinal circulation to darkness: A laser Doppler velocimetry study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 24:737–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kohner, E. M. 1975. Dynamic changes in the microcirculation of diabetics as related to diabetic microangiopathy. Acta Med Scand Suppl 578:41–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Grunwald, J.E., C.E. Riva, S.H. Sinclair, A.J. Brucker, and B.L. Petrig. 1986. Laser Doppler velocimetry study of retinal circulation in diabetes mellitus. Arch Ophthalmol 104: 991–996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Feke, G.T., H. Tagawa, A. Yoshida, D.G. Goger, J.J. Weiter, S.M. Buzney, and J.W. McMeel. 1985. Retinal circulatory changes related to retinopathy progression in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmology 92:1517–1522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grunwald, J.E., C.E. Riva, A.J. Brucker, S.H. Sinclair, and B.L. Petrig. 1982. Altered retinal vascular response to 100% oxygen breathing in diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmology 89:757–762.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grunwald, J. E., C. E. Riva, A.J. Brucker, S. H. Sinclair, and B.L. Petrig. 1986. Effect of panretinal photocoagulation on retinal blood flow in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology 93:590–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grunwald, J.E., Brucker, A.J., Petrig, B.L., and Riva, C.E. 1989. Retinal blood flow regulation and the clinical response to panretinal photocoagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Opthamology 96:1518–1522.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grunwald, J. E., C. E. Riva, D. B. Martin, A. R. Quint, and P. A. Epstein. 1987. Effect of an insulin-induced decrease in blood glucose on the human diabetic retinal circulation. Ophthalmology 94:1614–1620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Grunwald, J.E. 1986. Effect of topical timolol on the human retinal circulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 27:1713–1719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Green, J. G., G.T. Feke, D.G. Goger, and J.W. McMeel. 1983. Clinical application of laser Doppler technique for retinal blood flow studies. Arch Ophthalmol 101:971–974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Grunwald, J.E., C.E. Riva, and D.M. Kozart. 1988. Retinal circulation during spontaneous rise of intraocular pressure. Br J Ophthalmol 72:754–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yoshida, A., G.T. Feke, J.G. Green, D.G. Goger, M. Matsuhashi, A.E. Jalkh, and J.W. McMeel. 1983. Retinal circulatory changes after scleral buckling procedures. Am J Ophthalmol 95:182–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Delori, F. C., J.S. Parker, and M. A. Mainster. 1980. Light levels of fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Vision Res 20:1099–1104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Riva, C. E., G.T. Feke, and M. Loebl. 1976. Laser Doppler measurement of blood flow in the fundus of the human eye. Proceedings of the 1976 Electro-Optical System Design/ International Laser Conference. Chicago: Industrial and Scientific Management, pp 142–147.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stern, M.D. 1975. In vivo evaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering. Nature 254:56–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stern, M. D., and D. L. Lappe. 1978. Method and apparatus for measurement of blood flow using coherent light. U.S. Patent No 4, 109, 647.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Riva, C. E., J. E. Grunwald, and S. H. Sinclair. 1982. Laser Doppler measurement of relative blood velocity in the human optic nerve head. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 22:241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sebag, J., G.T. Feke, F.C. Delori, and J.J. Weiter. 1985. Anterior optic nerve blood flow in experimental optic atrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 26:1415–1422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Riva, C. E., R. D. Shonat, and B.L. Petrig. 1989. Noninvasive investigation of the optic nerve head circulation. In Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, 1989 Technical Digest Series, vol. 7. Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, pp 158–161.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Riva, C. E., C.J. Pournaras, C. L. Poitry-Yamate, and B.L. Petrig. 1989. Evidence for spontaneous rhythmic flow changes in the optic nerve head, retinal and choroidal circulations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci Suppl 30:137.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Salerud, E. G., T. Tenland, G.E. Nilsson, and P. A. Oberg. 1983. Rhythmical variations in human skin blood flow. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp 2:91–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Colantuoni, A., S. Bertuglia, and M. Intaglietta. 1984. Quantitation of rhythmic diameter changes in arterial microcirculation. Am J Physiol 246 (Heart Circ Physiol 15):H508–H517.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles E. Riva
  • Benno L. Petrig
  • Juan E. Grunwald

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations