Nephrotoxicity pp 743-748 | Cite as

Lipophilic Cations as Membrane Probes in Cultured Renal (LLC-PK1) and Muscle Cells (L6)

  • R. T. Riley
  • D. E. Goeger
  • W. P. Norred

Abstract

Tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP) and triphenylmethylphosphonium (TPMP) are lipophilic cations which have been used to measure transmembrane potentials in vesicles, mitochondria, and plant and animal cells (Cafimo and Hubbell, 1978; Ritchie, 1984). The use of TPP and TPMP to estimate electrical potentials in animal cells has many sources of error. There is, however, a qualitative proportionality between their uptake and the transmembrane potential difference which can provide useful information about the biological activity of chemicals. Lipophilic cations have also been used as probes of charge alterations in both lipid and protein domains of biomembranes (Levitsky et al., 1986; Cafiso, 1984). The relationship between charge alterations on, or within, biomembranes and the manifestations of toxicity in animals is not well established. None-theless, in vitro studies indicate that such alterations can have profound effects on transport systems and receptors associated with cell membranes (Levitsby et al., 1986; Cafiso, 1984).

Keywords

Cyclopiazonic Acid Lipophilic Cation Potential Partition Efflux Kinetic Transmembrane Potential Difference 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Cafiso, D.S., 1984, Paramagnetic hydrophobic ions as probes for electrically active conformational transitions in ion channels, Biophys. J. 45:6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cafiso, D.S. and Hubbell, W.L., 1978, Estimation of transmembrane potentials from phase equilibria of hydrophobic paramagnetic ions, Biochemistry, 17:187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Levitsky, D.O., Loginov, V.A. and Lebedev, A.V., 1986, Charge changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+-ATPase induced by calcium binding and release: A study using lipophilic ions, Membr. Biochem., 6:291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Riley, R.T., Norred, W.P., Dorner, J.W. and Cole, R.J.: 1985, Increased accumulation of the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium by cyclopiazonic acid-treated renal epithelial cells, Toxicol. Environ. Health, 15:779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Riley, R.T., Showker, J.L., Cole, R.J. and Dorner, J., 1986; The mechanism by which cyclopiazonic acid potentiates accumulation of tetraphenyl-phosphonium in cultured renal epithelial cells, J. Biochem. Toxicol., 1:13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ritchie, R.J., 1984, A critical assessment of the use of lipophilic cations as membrane potential probes, Prog. Biophys. Molec. Biol., 13:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. T. Riley
    • 1
  • D. E. Goeger
    • 1
  • W. P. Norred
    • 1
  1. 1.Toxicology and Mycotoxins Research Unit, Russel Research CenterU.S.D.A./A.R.S.AthensUSA

Personalised recommendations