Studies of C1q Deposits in the Human Placenta Using Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Extra-Embryonic Tissues
The presence of the first complement component around some fetal stem vessels in the chorionic villous stroma of term human placentae was first reported by Faulk and Johnson (1977) using the antiserum to Clq. This finding was later extended to the immature placenta (Johnson and Faulk, 1978). Sinha et al. (1984) showed that more anti-Clq positive fetal blood vessels and fibrinoid structures could be seen in the placentae from patients with pre-eclampsia. Although, the pathogenesis of this type of fetal stem vessels was unclear, it has been suggested that they may be mediated by immunological mechanisms (Sinha et al., 1984). Morphologically, two types of lesions of fetal stem vessels have been described, namely, fibromuscular sclerosis and obliterative endarteritis (Fox, 1978). The fibromuscular sclerosis of fetal stem arteries was often associated with villous infarction and the villi which were embedded in the fibrinous plaque. The cause of this lesion was suggested to be the cessation of fetal blood flow in these blood vessels. On the other hand, the fetal arterial obliterative endarteritis was found more often in the placentae of women with pre-eclampsia, essential hypertension or diabetes melitus. It has been proposed that it was the consequence of hypoxia of the placentae (Fox, 1967a).
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