Characterization of Maternal Trophoblast Lymphocyte Cross-Reactive (TLX) Immunity
Women suffering from idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortions may be grouped as primary (1°) or secondary (2°) aborters (McIntyre and Faulk, 1984; McIntyre et al., 1984). Women classified as 2° aborters have had children, stillbirths or premature births before their abortions began. Unlike 1° aborters, 2° aborters do not share HLA antigens with their spouses and they have high-titred complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) reactivity against paternal and non-paternal lymphoyctes even when not pregnant (McConnachie and McIntyre, 1984; McIntyre et al., 1984; McIntyre et al., 1986). Although multiparous women are the primary source of HLA typing sera, only 20–60% actually produce demonstrable antibodies and most of these disappear soon after delivery (Amon and Kostyu, 1980). Study of 2° aborters’ antibodies on HLA select cell panels before and after absorption with trophoblast membranes has shown patterns of reactivity which indicate specificities for trophoblast lymphocyte crossreactive (TLX) antigens (McIntyre and Faulk, 1982; McIntyre et al., 1983; McIntyre et al., 1985; Faulk and McIntyre, 1983).
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