Lecithin pp 155-166 | Cite as

Dissemination and Activity of AL 721 after Oral Administration

  • Meir Shinitzky
  • Rachel Haimovitz
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 33)

Summary

Absorption of phospholipids in the small intestine is, in general, associated with hydrolysis by pancreatic lipases to water soluble products that eventualy reintegrate in the mucosa cells. An alternative route of phospholipid absorption is by endocytosis of small and tight assemblies like liposomes without hydrolysis. It might be therefore expected that shortly after absorption of phospholipids through one of these routes their composition in the blood stream is largely preserved. Along this rationale AL 721, a lipid mixture designated to reduce excess cholesterol from peripheral membranes, can be administered per os for in vivo application. A series of animal and human studies, where AL 721 was administered per os, lend support to this conclusion.

Keywords

High Density Lipoprotein Pancreatic Lipase Membrane Cholesterol Cell Plasma Membrane Mitogenic Stimulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Carey M.C., Small D.M. and Bliss CM., 1983, Lipid digestion and absorption Ann. Rev. Physiol. 45:651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carlson L.A. and Hallberg D., 1963, The Kinetics of the elimination of a lat emulsion and of chylomicrons in the dog after single injection. Acta Physiol. Scand. 59:52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cooper R.A., 1977, Abnormalities of cell membrane fluidity in the pathogenesis of disease, N. Eng. J. Med. 197:371.Google Scholar
  4. Cooper R.A. and Strauss J.F., 1984, Regulation of cell membrane cholesterol, in physiology of membrane fluidity (M. Shinitzky, ed) Vol. 1 pp. 73–98. CRC press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  5. Goldstein J.L. and Brown M.S., 1977, The low-density lipoprotein pathway and its relation to atherosclerosis, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 46:897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Greten J., Raetzer H., Stiehl A. and Schettler, 1980, The effect of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine on plasma lipids and fecal sterol excretion. Atherosclerosis 36:81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hagerman J.S. and Gould R.G., 1951, The in vitro interchange of cholesterol between plasma and red cells, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 78:329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hallberg D., 1965, studies on the elimination of exogenous lipids from the blood stream. Acta Physiol. Scand. 64:306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Heron D., Shinitzky M. and Samuel D., 1982, Alleviation of drug withdrawal symptons by treatment with a potent mixture of natural lipids. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 83:253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Johnson W.J., Bamberger M.J., Latta R.A., Rapp P. E., Phillips M.C. and Rothblat G.H., 1986, The bidirectional flux of cholesterol between cells and lipoproteins. J. Biol. Chem. 261:5766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Lyte M. and Shinitzky M., 1985, A special lipid mixture for membrane fluidization. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 812:132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Murata M., Imaizumi K. and Sugano M., 1982, Effect of dietary phospholipids and their constituent bases on serum lipids and apolipoproteins in rats J. Nutr. 112:1805.Google Scholar
  13. O’Mullane J.E. and Hawthrone J.N., 1982, A coparison of the effect of feeding linoleic acid-rich lecithin or corn oil on cholesterol absorption and metabolism in the rat. Atherosclerosis 45:81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Parthasarathy S., Subbaigh P.V. and Ganguly J., 1974, The mechanism of intestinal absorption of phosphatidlylcholine in rats. Biochim. J. 140:503.Google Scholar
  15. Patel H.M., Tuzel N.S. and Stevenson R.W., 1985, Intracellular digestion of saturated and unsaturated phospholipid liposomes by mucosal cells. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 839:40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rabinowich H., Lyte M., Steiner A, Klajman A. and Shinitzky M., 1987, Partial restoration of immune competence in aged humans under a special lipid diet (AL 721). Mech. Age. Dev. in press.Google Scholar
  17. Rose H.G. and Oklander M., 1965, Analysis of erythrocyte membrane lipids J. Lipid Res. 6:428.Google Scholar
  18. Rossner S., 1974, studies on intravenous fat tolerance rest. Methodological, experimental and clinical experiences with Intralipid. Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 564:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Shenkin A. and Wretlind A., 1978, parenteral nutrition, Wed. Rev. Nutr. Diet. 28:1.Google Scholar
  20. Shinitzky M., Lyte M., Heron D. and Samuel D., 1983, Intervention in membrane aging — The development and application of Active Lipid, in Intervention in the aging process, part B. pp. 175-186. Alan R. Liss, Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Shinitzky M., 1984, Membrane fluidity and cellular functions, in Physiology of membrane fluidity (M. Shinitzky, ed) Vol. 1 pp. 1-51.Google Scholar
  22. Shinitzky M., 1986, The lipid regimen, in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases (A. Fisher, I. Hanin and C. Lachman, eds) PR 593–602. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Torres I.J., Litterst C.L. and Guazino A.M., 1978, Transport of model compounds across the peritoneal membrane in the rat. Pharmacology 17:330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tso P., 1985, Gastrointestinal digestion and absorption of lipid, Adv. Lipid Res. 21:143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Wilson P. W., Garrison R.J., Castelli W.P., Feinleib M., McNamara P.M. and Kannel W.B., 1980, Prevalence of coronary heart disease in the Framingham offspring study: role of lipoprotein cholesterols. Am. J. Card. 46:649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meir Shinitzky
    • 1
  • Rachel Haimovitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Membrane ResearchThe Weizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael

Personalised recommendations