Evolution of Human Atherosclerotic Lesions

  • K. W. Walton

Abstract

Prospective studies in certain communities have shown that a number of “risk factors” contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. 1–5, 32 Among the more important are age, sex, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and cigarette smoking. If one’s aim is to produce regression of atherosclerosis (which is what this Advanced Study Institute is all about), then it is necessary first to try to understand how those risk factors accessible to therapeutic intervention might operate in the arterial wall to cause progression of the disease.

Keywords

Atherosclerotic Lesion Fatty Streak Arterial Lesion Temporal Arteritis Arterial Intima 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Keys, N. Kimura, B. Bronte-Stewart, N. Larsen and M. H. Keys, Lessons from serum cholesterol studies in Japan, Hawaii and Los Angeles, Ann. Intern. Med. 48: 83 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. N. Morris and M. J. Gardner, Epidemiology of ischaemic heart disease, Am. J. Med. 46: 674 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. P. Strong and D. A. Eggen, Risk factors and atherosclerotic lesions, in: “Atherosclerosis: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium,” R. J. Jones, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1970).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. H. Epstein, Epidemiologic aspects of atherosclerosis, Atherosclerosis 14: 1 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Lewis, A. Chait, I. D. P. Wootton, C. M. Oakley, D. M. Krikler, G. Sigurdsson, A. February, B. Maurer and J. Birkhead, Frequency of risk factors for ischaemic heart disease in a healthy British population, Lancet 1: 141 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. W. Walton and N. Williamson, Histological and immunofluorescent studies on the evolution of the human atheromatous plaque, J. Atheroscler. Res. 8: 599 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. W. Walton, N. Williamson and A. G. Johnson, The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis of the mitral and aortic valves, J. Pathol. 101: 205 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. W. Walton, Studies on the pathogenesis of corneal arcus formation. I. Corneal arcus formation in the human and its relation to atherosclerosis as studied by immunofluorescence, J. Pathol. 111: 263 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. W. Walton and D. J. Dunkerley, Studies on the pathogenesis of corneal arcus formation. II. Immunofluorescent studies on lipid deposition in the eye of the lipid-fed rabbit, J. Pathol. 114: 217 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. W. Walton, C. Thomas and D. J. Dunkerley, The pathogenesis of xanthomata, J. Pathol. 109: 271 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. W. Walton, J. Hitchens, H. N. Magnani and M. Khan, A study of methods of identification and estimation of Lp(a) lipoprotein and of its significance in health, hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, Atherosclerosis 20: 323 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. W. Walton, Identification of lipoproteins involved in human atherosclerosis, in “Atherosclerosis III: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium,” G. Schettler and A. Weizel, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1974).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. W. Walton, D. J. Dunkerley, A. G. Johnson, M. K. Khan, C. J. Morris and R. Watts, Investigation by immunofluorescence of arterial lesions in rabbits on two different lipid supplements and treated with pyridinol carbamate, Atherosclerosis 23: 117 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. W. Walton and C. J. Morris, Studies on the passage of plasma proteins across arterial endothelium in relation to atherogenesis, Prog. Biochem. Pharmacol. 13: 138 (1977).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. V. H. Bradby, K. W. Walton and R. Watts, The binding of total low density lipoproteins in human arterial intima affected and unaffected by atherosclerosis, Atherosclerosis 32: 403 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. W. Walton, Immunohistology of aortic fatty streaks in children and adults, in “Atherosclerosis IV: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium,” F. G. Schettler, A. M. Gotto, G. Middlehoff, A. J. R. Habenicht and K. Jurutka, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1983).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. W. Walton, The role of serum lipoproteins in very early and late atherosclerotic lesions, in “Connective Tissue and Ageing,” H. G. Vogel, ed., Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam (1973).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. W. Walton, Pathogenetic mechanisms in atherosclerosis, Am. J. Cardiol. 35: 542 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. B. Smith, R. S. Slater and J. A. Hunter, Quantitative studies on fibrinogen and low-density lipoprotein in human aortic intima, Atherosclerosis 18: 479 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. M. Yamada and K. Olden, Fibronectins — adhesive glycoproteins of cell surface and blood, Nature 275: 179 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. J. Unsworth, D. L. Scott, T. J. Almond, H. K. Beard, E. J. Holborow and K. W. Walton, Studies on reticulin. I. The occurrence of collagen Type III, fibronectin and the noncollagenous glycoprotein of Pras and Glynn in reticulin, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 63: 154 (1982).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. W. Walton and D. L. Scott, The role of fibronectin in atherosclerotic lesions. In preparation.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. W. Walton, The biological properties of a new anticoagulant possessing heparin-like properties, Br. J. Pharmacol. 7: 370 (1952).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. L. Oncley, K. W. Walton and D. G. Cornwell, A rapid method for the bulk isolation of β-lipoproteins from plasma, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79: 4666 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. W. Mosesson, Structure of human plasma cold-insoluble globulin and the mechanism of its precipitation in the cold with heparin or fibrin-fibrinogen complexes, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 312: 11 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. F. Mosher, Cross-linking of plasma and cellular fibronectin by plasma transglutaminase, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 312: 38 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. B. Klynstra and C. J. F. Böttcher, Permeability patterns in pig aorta, Atherosclerosis 11: 451 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. B. Somer and C. J. Schwartz, Focal 3H-cholesterol uptake in the pig aorta, Atherosclerosis 13: 293 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. Veress, A. Balint, A. Kocze, Z. Nagy and H. Jellinek, Increasing aortic permeability by atherogenic diet, Atherosclerosis 11: 369 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. W. Walton, G. Slaney and F. Ashton, Immunohistological studies on late failures of bypass grafts for peripheral arterial disease. II. Synthetic arterial prostheses. In preparation.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    P. J. Scott and C. C. Winterbourn, Low-density lipoprotein accumulation in actively growing xanthomas, J. Atheroscler. Res. 7: 207 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. R. Dawber, W. B. Kannel, N. Revotskie and A. Kagan, The epidemiology of coronary heart disease — the Framingham Enquiry, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 55: 265 (1962).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. H. Heptinstall, H. Barkley and K. A. Porter, Relative roles of blood cholesterol level and blood pressure level in the production of experimental aortic atheroma in rabbits, Angiology 9: 84 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. C. McGill, M. H. Frank and J. C. Geer, Aortic lesions in hypertensive monkeys, Arch. Pathol. 71: 96 (1961).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. Heath, E. H. Wood, J. W. Dushane and J. E. Edwards, The relation of age and blood pressure to atheroma in the pulmonary arteries and thoracic aorta in congenital heart disease, Lab. Invest. 9: 259 (1960).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. W. Walton, G. Slaney and F. Ashton, Immunohistological studies on late failures of bypass grafts for peripheral arterial disease. I. Autogenous vein grafts, Br. J. Surg. In press.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    G. J. Miller and N. E. Miller, Plasma high density lipoprotein concentration and development of ischaemic heart disease, Lancet 1: 16 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    K. W. Walton, Atherosclerosis and ageing, in: “Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology,” J. C. Brocklehurst, ed., Churchill-Livingstone, Edinburgh (1973).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    D. B. Zilversmit, A proposal linking atherogenesis to the interaction of endothelial lipoprotein lipase with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, Circ. Res. 33: 633 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. A. Johnson, Lymphatics of blood vessels, Lymphology 2: 44 (1969).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    C. W. M. Adams, “Vascular Histochemistry in Relation to the Chemical and Structural Pathology of Cardiovascular Disease,” Lloyd-Luke, London (1967).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. Truett, J. Cornfield and W. Kannel, A multivariate analysis of the risk of coronary heart disease in Framingham, J. Chronic Dis. 20: 511 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Keys, C. Aravanis, H. Blackburn, F. S. P. van Buchem, R. Buzina, B. S. Djordjevie, F. Fidanza, M. J. Karvonen, A. Menotti, V. Puddu and H. L. Taylor, Circulation 45: 815 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. W. Walton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Investigative PathologyThe University of BirminghamBirminghamEngland

Personalised recommendations