The Vulva

  • Eduard G. Friedrich
  • Edward J. Wilkinson

Abstract

The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris with its prepuce and frenulum, the vestibule into which open the orifices of Skene’s and Bartholin’s glands, and the urethral meatus (Fig. 2.1). All these structures are easily visualized except for the Bartholin gland orifices, which are normally not seen unless inflamed. With adrenarche, the mons pubis and lateral aspects of the labia majora acquire increased amounts of subcutaneous fat and develop the coarse curly surface-hair characteristic of the adult. With maturation of the hair-follicle apparatus, there is concomitant maturation and development of the sebaceous and apocrine glands in the hair-bearing regions as well as in the labia minora and inner aspect of the prepuce. Other than the areola of the breast, these are the only areas in which sebaceous glands routinely develop without concomitant hair formation (Fig. 2.2).

Keywords

Obstet Gynecol Lichen Sclerosus Verrucous Carcinoma Condyloma Acuminata Apocrine Gland 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adam E, Kaufman RH, Mirkovic RR, Melnick JL (1979) Persistence of virus shedding in asymptomatic women after recovery from herpes genitalis. Obstet Gynecol 54: 171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adamsons K, Reisfield D (1964) Observations on intradermal migration of Paget cells. Am J Obstet Gynecol 90: 1274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Addison A, Parker RT (1977) Adenoid cystic carcinoma of Bartholin’s gland. Gynecol Oncol 5: 196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aly R, Britz MB, Maibach HI (1979) Quantitative microbiology of human vulva. Br J Dermatol 101: 445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aurelian L (1974) The viruses of love and cancer. Am J Med Technol 40: 496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barrero-Oro JG, Smith KO, Milnick JL (1962) Quantitation of papova virus particles in human warts. J Natl Cancer Inst 29: 583Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Becker SW, Brennan B, Weichselbaum PK (1960) Genital Paget’s disease. Arch Dermatol 82: 857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beecham CT (1976) Paget’s disease of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 47: 61 (Suppl)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Belcher RW (1972) Extramammary Paget’s disease. Arch Pathol 94: 59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blair, C (1970) Angiokeratoma of the vulva. Br J Dermatol 83: 409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blank H, Davis C, Collins C. (1970) Electron microscopy for the diagnosis of cutaneous viral infections. Br J Dermatol 83: 69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Borel DM (1973) Cutaneous basosquamous carcinoma. Arch Pathol 95: 293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boyce DC, Valpey JM (1971) Acute ulcerative vulvitis of obscure etiology. Obstet Gynecol 38: 440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Breen JL, Neubecker RD, Greenwald E, Gregori CA (1974) Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 46: 122Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Britz MB, Maibach HI (1979) Human labia majora skin: Transepidermal water loss in vivo. Acta Dermato-vener 59: (Suppl) 85: 23Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buchler DA (1975) Multiple primaries and gynecologic malignancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 123: 376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Buscema J, Woodruff JD, Parmley TH, Genadry R (1980) Carcinoma in situ of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 55: 225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Calandra D, di Paola GR, Gomez-Rueda N, Balina L (1979) Enfermedades de la vulva. Panamericana, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Capraro VJ (1971) Congenital anomalies. Clin Obstet Gynecol 14: 988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bayonet-Rivera NP, Magoss I (1970) Vulvar tumor in children due to prolapse of urethral mucosa. Am J Obstet Gynecol 108: 572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carneiro SJC, Gardner HL, Knox JM (1971) Syringoma of the vulva. Arch Dermatol 103: 494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Catherwood AE, Cohen ES (1951) Endometriosis with decidual reaction in episiotomy scar. Am J Obstet Gynecol 62: 1364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chung AF, Woodruff JM, Lewis JL (1975) Malignant melanoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 45: 638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coates JB, Hales JS (1973) Granular cell myoblastoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 41: 796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Collins CG, Hansen LH, Theriot E (1966) A clinical stain for use in selecting biopsy sites in patients with vulvar disease. Obstet Gynecol 28: 158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Connors RC, Ackerman AB (1976) Histologic pseudomalignancies of the skin. Arch Dermatol 112: 1767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Conway H, Stark RB, Climo S, Weeter JC, Garcia FA (1952) The surgical treatment of chronic hidradenitis suppurative. Surg Gynecol Obstet 95: 455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Creasman WT, Gallager HS, Rutledge F (1975) Paget’s disease of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 3: 133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dean RE, Taylor ES, Weisbrod DM, Martin JW (1974) The treatment of premalignant and malignant lesions of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 119: 59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dehner LP (1973) Metastatic and secondary tumors of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 42: 47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dewhurst CJ (1968) Congenital malformations of the genital tract in childhood. J Obstet Gynecol Br Commun 75: 377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    di Paola GR, Gomez-Rueda N, Arrighi L (1975) Relevance of microinvasion in carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 45: 647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Di Saia PJ, Rutledge F, Smith JP (1971) Sarcoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 38: 180Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Di Saia PJ, Creasman WT, Ric WM (1979) An alternate approach to early cancer of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 825Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dodson MG, O’Leary JA, Averette HE (1970) Primary carcinoma of Bartholin’s gland. Obstet Gynecol 35: 578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Douglas CP (1962) Lymphogranuloma venereum and granuloma inguinale of the vulva. J Obstet Gynecol Br Commun 69: 871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dowdle WR, Nahmias AJ, Harwell RW, Pauls FP (1967) Association of antigenic type of herpes virus hominis with site of viral recovery. J Immunol 99: 974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Doyle JC (1942) Imperforate hymen. Calif West Med 56: 242Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Drusin LM (1972) The diagnosis and treatment of infectious and latent syphilis. Med Clin North Am 56: 1161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dunn JM (1970) Congenital absence of the external genitalia. J Reprod Med 4: 66Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Duson CK, Zelenik JS (1954) Vulvar endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 3: 76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ekwo E, Wong YW, Myers M (1979) Asymptomatic cervicovaginal shedding of herpes simplex virus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Embrey MP (1961) Vulval carcinoma complicating condylomata acuminata. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commun 68: 503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Falk HC, Hyman AB (1971) Congenital absence of clitoris. Obstet Gynecol 38: 269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Faber EM, McClintock RP (1968) A current review of psoriasis. Calif Med 108: 440Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ferenczy A, Richart RM (1972) Ultrastructure of perianal Paget’s disease. Cancer 29: 1141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fetherston WC, Friedrich EG (1972) The origin and significance of vulvar Paget’s disease. Obstet Gynecol 39: 735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Flynt J, Gallup DG (1979) Childhood lichen sclero-sus. Obstet Gynecol 53: 79SGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Foye G, Marsh MR, Minkowitz S (1969) Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 34: 484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Franklin EW (1972) Clinical staging of carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 40: 277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Franklin EW, Rutledge FD (1972) Epidemiology of epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 39: 165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Franklin EW, Rutledge FD (1971) Prognostic factors in epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 37: 892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Friedman JM, Fialkow PJ (1976) Viral turmorigen-esis in man: Cell markers in condylomata acuminata. Int J Cancer 17: 57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Friedrich EG (1976) Vulvar disease—Recognition and treatment. Philadelphia, WB SaundersGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Friedrich EG (1976) Lichen sclerosus. J Reprod Med 17: 147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Friedrich EG (1972) Reversible vulvar atypia. Obstet Gynecol 39: 173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Friedrich EG (1972) Vulvar carcinoma in situ in identical twins—An occupational hazard. Obstet Gynecol 39: 837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Friedrich EG (1977) Cryosurgery for urethral prolapse. Obstet Gynecol 50: 359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Friedrich EG, Burch K, Bahr JP (1979) The vulvar clinic: An eight year appraisal. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135: 1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Friedrich EG, Julian CG, Woodruff JD (1964) Acri-dine orange fluorescence in vulvar dysplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 90: 1281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Friedrich EG, Wilkinson EJ (1973) Mucous cysts of the vulvar vestibule. Obstet Gynecol 42: 407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Friedrich EG, Wilkinson EJ, Steingraeber PH, Lewis DJ (1975) Paget’s disease of the vulva and carcinoma of the breast. Obstet Gynecol 46: 130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Friedrich EG, Wilkinson EJ, Fu YS (1980) Carcinoma in situ of the vulva: A continuing challenge. Am J Obstet Gynecol 136: 830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gallousis S (1972) Verrucous carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 40: 502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Garcia JJ, Verkauf BS, Hochberg CJ, Ingram JM (1978) Aberrant breast tissue of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 52: 225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gardner E, Gray DJ, O’Rahilly R (1960) Anatomy, a regional study of human structure. Philadelphia, WB SaundersGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gardner HL, Kaufman RH (1969) Benign diseases of the vulva and vagina. St. Louis, CV MosbyGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gardner HL, Kaufman RH (1972) Viral infections in gynecology and obstetrics. Clin Obstet Gynecol 15: 856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gompel C, Silverberg SG (1969) Pathology in gynecology and obstetrics. Philadelphia, JB LippincottGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gosling JRG, Abell MR, Drolette BM, Loughrin TD (1961) Infiltrative squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Cancer 14: 330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gueson ET, Liu CT, Emich JP (1971) Dysplasia following podophyllin treatment of vulvar condyloma acuminata. J Reprod Med 6: 159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Guindi SF, Silberberg BK, Evans TN (1974) Multifocal mixed adnexoid tumors of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Obstet 12: 138Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hansen LH, Collins CG (1967) Multicentric squamous cell carcinomas of the lower female genital tract. Am J Obstet Gynecol 98: 982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hart WR, Millman JB (1977) Progression of intraepithelial Paget’s disease of the vulva to invasive carcinoma. Cancer 40: 2333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hart WR, Norris HJ, Helwig EB (1975) Relation of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the vulva to development of carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 45: 369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hay DM, Cole FM (1970) Postgranulomatous epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 108: 479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Helwig EB, Graham JH (1963) Anogenital (extra-mammary) Paget’s disease. Cancer 16: 387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hendrix RC, Behrman SJ (1956) Adenocarcinoma arising in a supernumerary mammary gland in the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 8: 238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hensley GT, Friedrich EG (1973) Malignant fibroxanthoma: A sarcoma of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 116: 289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Herbut PA (1953) Gynecological and obstetrical pathology. Philadelphia, Lea and FebigerGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hewitt AB (1971) Behcet’s disease. Br J Vener Dis 47: 52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hewitt M, Barrow GI, Miller DC, Turk F, Turk S (1973) Mites in the personal environment and their role in skin disorders. Br J Dermatol 89: 401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hilliard GD, Massey FM, O’Toole RV (1979) Vulvar neoplasia in the young. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135: 185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hobbs JE (1965) Sweat gland tumors. Clin Obstet Gynecol 8: 946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Huffman JW (1948) The detailed anatomy of the paraurethral ducts in the adult human female. Am J Obstet Gynecol 55: 86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hughes RR (1971) Early diagnosis and management of premalignant lesions and early invasive cancers of the vulva. South Med J 64: 1490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hurley HJ, Shelley WB (1960) The human apocrine sweat gland in health and disease. Springfield, Ill, Charles C ThomasGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Imperial R, Helwig EB (1967) Angiokeratoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 29: 307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    International Society for the Study of Vulvar Disease (1976) New nomenclature for vulvar disease I. Obstet Gynecol 47: 122Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Isaacson D, Turner ML (1979) Localized vulvar syringomas. J Am Acad Dermatol 1: 352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Jafari K, Cartnick EN (1976) Microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 4: 158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Jagella HP, Stegner HE (1974) On the diagnosis of condylomata acuminata. Arch Gynaekol 216: 119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Janovski NA, Marshall D, Taki I (1962) Malignant melanoma of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 84: 523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Janovski NA, Weir JH (1962) Comparative histologic and histochemical studies of mesonephric derivatives and tumors. Obstet Gynecol 19: 57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jeffcoate TNA, Woodcock AS (1961) Premalignant conditions of the vulva, with particular reference to chronic epithelial dystrophies. Br Med J 2: 127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jeffcoate TNA (1966) Chronic vulval dystrophies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 95: 61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jimerson GK, Merrill JA (1970) Multicentric squamous malignancy involving both cervix and vulva. Cancer 26: 150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Johnson RE, Ackerman LV (1959) Epidermoid carcinoma of the hand. Cancer 3: 657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jones I, Buntine D (1978) Progression of vulval carcinoma in situ. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 18: 274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Judge JR (1969) Giant condylomata acuminata involving vulva and rectum. Arch Pathol 88: 46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kabulski Z, Frankman O (1978) Histologic malignancy grading in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Int J Obstet Gynecol 16: 233Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kao M, Paulson JD, Askin FB (1975) Crohn’s disease of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 46: 329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Karasek J, Smetana K, Oehlert W, Konrad B (1970) The ultrastructure of Bowen’s disease: Nuclear and nucleolar lesions. Cancer Res 30: 2791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kaufman RH, Gardner HL (1965) Benign mesodermal tumors. Clin Obstet Gynecol 8: 953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kaufman RH, Gardner HL (1965) Intraepithelial carcinoma of the vulva. Clinic Obstet Gynecol 8: 1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kaufman RH, Gardner HL, Brown D, Beyth Y (1974) Vulvar dystrophies: An evaluation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 120: 363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kersting DW (1963) Clear cell hidradenoma and hidradenocarcinoma. Arch Dermatol 87: 91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    King LS, Sullivan M (1947) Effects of podophyllin and of colchicine on normal skin, on condyloma acuminatum, and on verruca vulgaris. Arch Pathol 43: 374Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kligman AM (1964) The myth of the sebaceous cyst. Arch Dermatol 89: 141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kovi J, Tillman RL, Lee SM (1974) Malignant transformation of condyloma acuminatum. Am J Clin Pathol 61: 702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kraus FT, Perez-Mesa C (1966) Verrucous carcinoma. Cancer 19: 26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Krupp PJ, Lee FY, Batson HW, Allen PM, Collins JH (1973) Carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 1: 345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Krupp PJ, Lee FY, Bohm JW, Batson HW, Diem JE, Lemire JE (1975) Prognostic parameters and clinical staging criteria in epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 46: 84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kuberski T (1980) Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis). Sex Transm Dis 7: 29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kunscher A, Kanbour AI, David B (1978) Early vulvar carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 132: 599Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lash AF, Zibel M (1951) Carcinoma of the vulva in a young woman. Am J Obstet Gynecol 62: 216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lasser A, Cornorg JL, Morris JM (1974) Adenoid squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Cancer 33: 224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lenette EH, Spaulding WH, Truant JP (1974) Manual of clinical microbiology, 2nd edn. Washington DC, American Society for MicrobiologyGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lever WF, Schaumburg-Lever G (1975) Histopa-thology of the skin, 5th edn. Philadelphia, JB LippincottGoogle Scholar
  120. 120..
    Lopez de la Osa Garces L (ed) (1972) Etiology and pathogeny of carcinoma of the vulva. In: Aspects and treatment of vulvar cancer. Basel, S Karger pp 4–15Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lovelady SB, McDonald JR, Waugh JM (1941) Benign tumors of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 42: 309Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lucas WE, Benirschke K, Lebherz TB (1974) Verrucous carcinoma of the female genital tract. Am J Obstet Gynecol 119: 435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123..
    Lundwall F (1961) Cancer of the vulva. Acta Radiol (Suppl) (Stockh) 208Google Scholar
  124. 124..
    Lynch PJ (1981) Warts and cancer: The oncogenic potential of human papilloma virus. Am J Dermato-pathol (in press)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lynch PJ, Minkin W (1968) Molluscum contagiosum of the adult. Arch Dermatol 98: 141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Machacek GF, Weakley DR (1960) Giant condylomata acuminata of Buschke and Lowenstein. Arch Dermatol 82: 95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Magrina JF, Webb MJ, Gaffey TA, Symmonds RE (1979) Stage I squamous cell cancer of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Mann PR, Cowan MA (1973) Ultrastructural changes in four cases of lichen scierosus et atrophicus. Br J Dermatol 89: 223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Marshall FC, Uson AC, Melicow MM (1960) Neoplasms and caruncles of the female urethra. Surg Gynecol Obstet 110: 723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Meleiro de Sousa L, Lash AF (1959) Hemangiopericytoma of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 78: 295Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Merlob P, Bahari C, Liban E, Reisner SH (1978) Cysts of the female external genitalia in the newborn infant. Am J Obstet Gynecol 132: 607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mihm MC, Clark WH, From L (1971) The clinical diagnosis, classification and histogenetic concepts of the early stages of cutaneous malignant melanomas. Engl J Med 284: 1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Milbrath JR, Wilkinson EJ, Friedrich EG (1975) Xerographic evaluation of radical vulvectomy specimens. Am J Roentgenol Radiat Ther Nucl Med 125: 486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Mollica G, Palmara D, Campagna (1966) Histo-chemical data on adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the human vulva. Minerva Ginecol 18: 1111Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Monacelli M, Nazzaro P (1966) Behcet’s disease. Basel, S KargerGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Monif GRG (1974) Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology. Hagerstown Md, Harper & RowGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Montgomery H (1967) Dermatopathology. New York, Harper & Row, pp 501–505Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Morley GW. Discussion. In: Di Saia, PJ, Creasman WT, Rich WM (1979) An alternate approach to early cancer of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 830Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Morrow CP, Rutledge FN (1972) Melanoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 39: 745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Muller G, Jacobs PH, Moore NE (1973) Scraping for human scabies. Arch Dermatol 107: 70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Nahmias AM, Naib ZM, Josey WE, Clepper AC (1967) Genital herpes simplex infection. Obstet Gynecol 29: 395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Nahmias AM, Roizman B (1973) Infection with herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. N Engl J Med 289: 667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Naib ZM, Nahmias AM, Josey WE (1973) Relation of cytohistopathology of genital herpes virus infection to cervical anaplasia. Cancer Res 33: 1452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Nakao CY, Nolan JF, di Saia PJ, Futoran R (1974) Microinvasive epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva with an unexpected natural history. Am J Obstet Gynecol 120: 1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Neilson D, Woodruff JD (1972) Electron microscopy in in-situ and invasive vulvar Paget’s disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 113: 719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Niebyl JR, Genadry R, Friedrich EG, Wilkinson EJ, Woodruff JD (1974) Vulvar carcinoma with hypercalcemia. Obstet Gynecol 45: 343Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Novak ER, Woodruff JD (1979) Novak’s gynecologic and obstetric pathology, 8th edn. Philadelphia, WB SaundersGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Oberfield RA (1961) Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and kraurosis vulvae. Arch Dermatol 83: 144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    O’Duffy JD, Carney JA, Deodhar S (1971) Behcet’s disease. Ann Int Med 75: 561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Olansky S (1972) Serodiagnosis of syphilis. Med Clin North Am 56: 1145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Oriel JD (1971) Natural history of genital warts. Br J Vener Dis 47: 1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Oriel JD, Almeida JD (1970) Demonstration of virus particles in human genital warts. Br J Vener Dis 46: 37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Oriel JD, Whimster IW (1971) Carcinoma in situ associated with virus-containing anal warts. Br J Dermatol 84: 71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Parker RT, Duncan I, Rampone J, Creasman W (1975) Operative management of early invasive epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 123: 349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Parmley TH, Woodruff JD, Julian CG (1975) Invasive vulvar Paget’s disease. Obstet Gynecol 46: 341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Parry-Jones E (1963) Lymphatics of the vulva. J Obstet Gynecol Br Commun 70: 751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Partridge EE, Murad T, Shingleton HM, et al. (1980) Verrucous lesions of the female genitalia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 137: 412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Pass F (1979) Progress toward a new wart biology. J Invest Dermatol 70: 109Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Pierard J, Thiery M, Boddaert J, Smet H (1958) Maladie de Paget de la vulve avec metastases viscerales. Arch Belges Dermatol Syphilgr 14: 87Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Pinkus H, Mehregan AH (1969) A guide to der-matohistopathology. New York, Appleton-Century-CroftsGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Piver MS, Tsukada Y, Barlow J (1972) Epithelioid sarcoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 40: 839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Plentl AA, Friedman EA (1971) Lymphatic system of the female genitalia. Philadelphia, WB SaundersGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Powell JL, Franklin EW, Nickerson JF, Burrell, MO (1978) Verrucous carcinoma of the female genital tract. Gynecol Oncol 6: 565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Powell LC (1972) Condyloma acuminatum. Clin Obstet Gynecol 15: 948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Reed RJ, Parkinson RP (1977) The histogenesis of molluscum contagiosum. Am J Surg Pathol 1: 161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ridley CM (1975) The vulva. Philadelphia, WB SaundersGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Robboy SJ, Ross JS, Prat J, Keh PC, Welch WR (1978) Urogenital sinus origin of mucinous and ciliated cysts of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 51: 347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Rorat E, Ferenczy A, Richart RM (1975) Human Bartholin gland, duct, and duct cyst. Arch Pathol 99: 367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Saltzstein SL, Woodruff JD, Novak ER (1956) Postgranulomatous carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 7: 80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Sanz Esponera, J (1972) The histopathology and degree of malignancy in invasive carcinoma of the vulva. In: Lopez de la Osa Garces L (ed) Aspects and treatment of vulvar cancer. Basel, S Karger pp 28–30.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Sarkany I, Taplin D, Blank H (1961) The etiology and treatment of erythrasma. J Invest Dermatol 37: 283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Schreiber MM (1963) Vulvar von Recklinghausen’s disease. Arch Dermatol 88: 136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Schueller EF (1965) Basal cell cancer of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 93: 199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Seiji M, Mizuno F (1969) Electron microscopic study of Bowen’s disease. Arch Dermatol 99: 3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Shafeek MA, Osman ME, Hussein MA (1979) Carcinoma of the vulva arising in condylomata acuminata. Obstet Gynecol 54: 120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Shane JM, Naftolin F (1975) Aberrant hormone activity by tumors of gynecologic importance. Am J Obstet Gynecol 121: 133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Siegel A (1962) Malignant transformation of condyloma acuminatum. Am J Surg 103: 613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Sobel HJ, Marquet E, Schwarz R (1973) Is schwannoma related to granular cell myoblastoma? Arch Pathol 95: 396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Sparling PF (1971) Diagnosis and treatment of syphilis. N Engl J Med 284: 642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Stegmaier OC (1967) Cosmetic management of nevi. JAMA 199: 167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Stehman FB, Castaldo TW, Charles EH, Lagasse LD (1980) Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 17: 523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Steigleder GK, Raab WP (1961) Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Arch Dermatol 84: 87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Stein D (1980) Transmissible venereal neoplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 137: 864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Stenchever MA, McDivitt RW, Fisher JA (1973) Leiomyoma of the clitoris. J Reprod Med 10: 75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Stening M (1980) Cancer and related lesions of the vulva. Balgowlah, Australia, ADIS PressGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Suurmond D (1964) Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the vulva. Arch Dermatol 90: 143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Swerdlow M (1952) Nevi: A problem of misdiagnosis. Am J Clin Pathol 22: 1054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Taki I, Janovski NA (1961) Paget’s disease of the vulva: Presentation and histochemical study of four cases. Obstet Gynecol 18: 385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Taylor PR, Stenwig JT, Klausen H (1975) Paget’s disease of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 3: 46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Tchang F, Okagaki T, Richart R (1973) Adenocarcinoma of Bartholin’s gland associated with Paget’s disease of vulvar area. Cancer 31: 221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Ubben K, Krzyzek R, Ostrow R, et al. (1979) Human papilloma virus DNA detected in two verrucous carcinomas. J Invest Dermatol 72: 195Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Von Krogh G (1979) Warts: Immunologic factors of prognostic significance. Int J Dermatol 18: 195Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Vontver LA, Reeves WC, Rattray M, Corey L, Remington MA, Tolentino E, Schweid A, Holmes KK (1979) Clinical course and diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection and evaluation of topical surfactant therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Wade TR, Kopf AW, Ackerman AB (1978) Bow-enoid papulosis of the penis. Cancer 42: 1890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Warvi WN, Gates O (1943) Epithelial cysts and cystic tumors of the skin. Am J Pathol 19: 765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Way S (1960) Carcinoma of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 79: 692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Wharton JT, Gallager S, Rutledge FN (1974) Microinvasive carcinoma of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 118: 159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Wharton LR, Everett HS (1951) Primary malignant Bartholin gland tumors. Obstet Gynecol Surv 6: 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Wilkinson EJ, Hause L (1974) Probability in lymph node sectioning. Cancer 33: 1269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Wilkinson EJ, Friedrich EG, Fu YS (1981) Multicentric nature of vulvar carcinoma in situ. Obstet Gynecol 58:69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Wisdom A (1973) Color atlas of venereology. Chicago, Year BookGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Woodruff JD, Baens JS (1963) Interpretation of atrophic and hypertrophic alterations in the vulvar epithelium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 86: 713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Woodruff JD, Davis HJ, Jones HW, Recio RG, Salimi R, Park I (1969) Correlated investigative techniques of multiple anaplasias in the lower genital canal. Obstet Gynecol 33: 609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Woodruff JD, Williams TF (1959) The dopa reaction in Paget’s disease of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 14: 86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Woodruff JD, Richardson EH (1957) Malignant vulvar Paget’s disease. Obstet Gynecol 10: 10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Woodruff JD, Borkowf HI, Holzman GB, Arnold EA, Knaack J (1965) Metabolic activity in normal and abnormal vulvar epithelia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 91: 809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Woodworth H, Dockerty MB, Wilson RB, Pratt JH (1971) Papillary hidradenoma of the vulva: A clinico-pathologic study of 69 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 110: 501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Word B (1968) Office treatment of cyst and abscess of Bartholin’s gland duct. South Med J 61: 514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Yackel DB, Symmonds RE, Kempers RD (1970) Melanoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 35: 625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Yazigi R, Piver MS, Tsukada Y (1978) Microinvasive carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 51: 368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Young AW, Herman EW, Tovell HMM (1980) Syringoma of the vulva: Incidence, diagnosis, and cause of pruritus. Obstet Gynecol 55: 515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Zur Hausen, H (1976) Condylomata acuminata and human genital cancer. Cancer Res 36: 794PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduard G. Friedrich
  • Edward J. Wilkinson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations