Mycological Diagnosis of Coccidioidomycosis

  • M. Huppert
  • S. H. Sun
Part of the Current Topics in Infectious Disease book series (CTID)

Abstract

Coccidioides immitis, (Stiles) Rixford and Gilchrist, 1896, is a dimorphic fungus. In nature and on common laboratory media, C. immitis grows as a mycelial fungus developing alternate thallic arthroconidia (formerly arthrospores or arthroaleuriospores) (see Chapter 2). In infected hosts, C. immitis maintains a spherule—endospore cycle which can be reproduced consistently in the laboratory only with special physicochemical conditions.

Keywords

Direct Examination Laboratory Personnel Aerial Hypha Fluid Specimen Mucolytic Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    L. Ajello, V. Q. Grant, and M. A. Gutske, The effect of tubercle bacillus concentration procedures on fungi causing pulmonary mycoses, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 38: 3–8 (1951).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. R. Reep and W. Kaplan, The use of N-acetyl-l-cysteine and dithiothreitol to process sputa for mycological and fluorescent antibody examinations, Health Lab. Sci. 9: 118–124 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Pappagianis, M. Saito, and K. H. Van Hoosear, Antibody in cerebrospinal fluid in non-meningitic coccidioidomycosis, Sabouraudia 10: 173–179 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. G. Wayne and W. J. Juarez, Isolation of Coccidioides immitis from spinal fluid by molecular filter membrane technic, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 25: 1209–1211 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Huppert, L. J. Walker, and J. W. Bailey, Complement fixation for coccidioidomycosis on spinal fluids filtered through molecular membranes, J. Bacteriol. 83: 692 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. G. Wayne and G. C. Kidd, Adsorption of chemical constituents of cerebrospinal fluid by molecular filter membrane, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28: 495–497 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. W. Emmons, Fungi which resemble Coccidioides immitis, in: Coccidioidomycosis. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Coccidioidomycosis ( L. Ajello, ed.), University of Arizona Press, Tucson (1967), pp. 333–337.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Sigler and J. W. Carmichael, Taxonomy of Malbranchea and some other hyphomycetes with arthroconidia, Mycotaxon 4: 349–488 (1976).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Salkin and B. H. Evans, in: Coccidioidomycosis. The Treatment of Mycotic and Parasitic Diseases of the Chest (J. Steele, ed.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill. (1964), pp. 55–119.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. F. Peckett, Hyphae of Coccidioides immitis in tissues of the human host, Am. Rev. Tuberc. 70: 320–327 (1954).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. D. Forbus and A. M. Bestebreurtje, Coccidioidomycosis: A study of 95 cases of the disseminated type with special reference to the pathogenesis of the disease, Mil. Surg. 99: 653–719 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Huppert, A technique for the safe handling of Coccidioides immitis cultures, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 50: 158–164 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. H. Kruse, Potential aerogenic laboratory hazards of Coccidioides immitis, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 37: 150–158 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. T. Omieczynski, Safe isolation of Coccidioides immitis from clinical specimens, Health Lab. Sci. 7: 227–232 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Huppert, S. H. Sun, and J. W. Bailey, Natural variability in Coccidioides immitis, in: Coccidioidomycosis. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposiúm on Coccidioidomycosis ( L. Ajello, ed.), University of Arizona Press, Tucson (1967), pp. 323–328.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. L. Spaur, Atypical cultures of Coccidioides immitis, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 26: 689–690 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. E. Baker, E. M. Mrak, and C. E. Smith, The morphology, taxonomy, and distribution of Coccidioides immitis, Rixford and Gilchrist, 1896, Farlowia 1: 199–244 (1943).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. Friedman, D. Pappagianis, R. J. Berman, and C. E. Smith, Studies on Coccidioides immitis: morphology and sporulation capacity of forty-seven strains, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 42: 438–444 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Huppert and L. J. Walker, The selective and differential effects of cycloheximide on many strains of Coccidioides immitis, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 29: 291–295 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. K. Georg, L. Ajello, and M. A. Gordon, A selective medium for the isolation of Coccidioides immitis, Science 114: 387–389 (1951).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. K. Georg, L. Ajello, and C. Papageorge, Use of cycloheximide in the selective isolation of fungi pathogenic to man, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 44: 422–428 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. G. Wedum and R. H. Kruse, Assessment of risk of human infection in the microbiology laboratory, Dept. of the Army, Fort Detrick, Misc. Publ. No. 30 (1969), pp. 1–89.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. E. Johnson, J. E. Perry, F. R. Fekety, P. J. Kadull, and L. E. Cluff, Laboratory-acquired coccidioidomycosis. A report of 210 cases, Ann. Intern. Med. 60: 941–956 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. J. Fiese, Coccidioidomycosis, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill. (1958).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. T. Maddy, Coccidioidomycosis in animals, Vet. Med. 54: 233–242 (1959).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    W. G. Roessler, E. J. Herbst, W. G. McCullough, R. C. Mills, and C. R. Brewer, Studies with Coccidioides immitis. I. Submerged growth in liquid mediums, J. Infect. Dis. 79: 12–22 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    W. G. Roessler, E. H. Herbst, W. G. McCullough, R. C. Mills, and C. R. Brewer, The nutrition of Coccidioides immitis in submerged culture, J. Bacteriol. 51: 572 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. L. Converse, Growth of spherules of Coccidioides immitis in a chemically defined liquid medium, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 90: 709–711 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. L. Converse, Effect of physico-chemical environment on spherulation of Coccidioides immitis, J. Bacteriol. 72: 784–792 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. L. Converse, Effect of surface active agents on endosporulation of Coccidioides immitis in a chemically defined medium, J. Bacteriol. 74: 106–107 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    H. B. Levine, J. M. Cobb, and C. E. Smith, Immunity of coccidioidomycosis induced in mice by purified spherule, arthrospores, and mycelial vaccines, Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 22: 436–449 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. B. Levine, Purification of the spherule-endospore phase of Coccidioides immitis, Sabouraudia 1: 112–115 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. A. Roberts, J. M. Counts, and H. G. Crecelius, Production in vitro of Coccidioides immitis spherules and endospores as a diagnostic aid, Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 102: 811–813 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    E. A. Brosbe, Use of refined agar for the in vitro propagation of the spherule phase of Coccidioides immitis, J. Bacteriol. 93: 497–498 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. H. Sun, M. Huppert, and K. R. Vukovich, Rapid in vitro conversion and identification of Coccidioides immitis, J. Clin. Microbiol. 3: 186–190 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. G. Standard and L. Kaufman, Immunological procedure for the rapid and specific identification of Coccidioides immitis cultures, J. Clin. Microbiol. 5: 149–153 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Huppert
  • S. H. Sun

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations