Advertisement

Enriched Environments: Facts, Factors, and Fantasies

  • Mark R. Rosenzweig
  • Edward L. Bennett
Chapter

Abstract

As we prepared to write this chapter and reviewed the varied and sometimes contradictory reactions of some investigators to our reports on effects of environment on brain and behavior, an old story came to mind: A villager was accused of returning a borrowed teapot in poor condition. Vehemently he replied, “In the first place, I never borrowed it; in the second place, I returned it in perfect condition; in the third place, the teapot was already dented when I got it!” Thus the initial criticism of our work was that our results were unlikely or probably unreproducible; that is, the effects didn’t exist in the first place.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Balázs, T., Murphy, JB., and Grice, HC1962The influence of environmental changes on the cardiotoxicity of isoprenaline in ratsJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 14, 750 - 755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bennett, EL1976Brain effects of differential experience and trainingIn: Neural Mechanisms of Learning and MemoryMRRosenzweig and ELBennett (Eds.)M.I.TPress, Cambridge, Mass., pp279 - 287.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, EL., and Rosenzweig, MR1971Potentials of an intellectually enriched environmentIn: Progress in Human NutritionSMargen (Ed.)A vi Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., pp210 - 224.Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, EL., Rosenzweig, MR., Krech, D., Ohlander, A., and Morimoto, H1961Cholinesterase activity and protein content of rat brainJournal of Neurochemistry, 6, 210 - 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett, EL., Diamond, MC., Krech, D., and Rosenzweig, MR1964Chemical and anatomical plasticity of brainScience, 146, 610 - 619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett, EL., Rosenzweig, MR., and Diamond, MC1969Rat brain: Effects of environmental enrichment on wet and dry weightsScience, 163, 825 - 826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett, EL., Rosenzweig, MR., and Wu, S.-YC1973Excitant and depressant drugs modulate effects of environment on brain weight and cholinesterasesPsychopharmacologia, 33, 309 - 328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennett, EL., Rosenzweig, MR., and Diamond, MC1974Effects of successive environments on brain measuresPhysiology and Behavior, 12, 621 - 631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blakemore, C., and Cooper, GF1970Development of the brain depends on the visual environmentNature (London), 228, 467 - 468.Google Scholar
  10. Blakemore, C., and Mitchell, DE1973Environmental modification of the visual cortex and the neural basis of learning and memoryNature (London), 241, 467 - 468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chang, S.-Y1969Changes produced in rat brain by environmental complexity and drug injectionDoctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  12. Cragg, BG1972Plasticity of synapsesIn: The Structure and Function of Nervous Tissue, VolIVGHBourne (Ed.)Academic Press, New York, pp2 - 60.Google Scholar
  13. Cummins, RA., Walsh, RN., Budtz-Olsen, OE., Konstantinos, T., and Horsfall, CR1973Environmentally-induced changes in the brain of elderly ratsNature (London), 243, 516 - 518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daly, M1973Early stimulation of rodents: A critical review of present interpretationsBritish Journal of Psychology, 64, 435 - 460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. de Feudis, FV1972Effects of isolation and aggregation on the water content of mouse brainBiological Psychiatry, 5, 207 - 211.Google Scholar
  16. de Feudis, FV1974Differences in brain and body weights of mice caused by differential housingExperientia, 30, 207 - 210.Google Scholar
  17. Diamond, MC., Krech, D., and Rosenzweig, MR1964The effects of an enriched environment on the histology of the rat cerebral cortexJournal of Comparative Neurology, 123, 111 - 119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diamond, MC., Johnson, R., and Ingham, CA1971Brain plasticity induced by environment and pregnancyInternational Journal of Neuroscience, 2, 171 - 178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diamond, MC., Johnson, RE., and Ingham, CA1975Morphological changes in the young, adult and aging rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and diencephalonBehavioral Biology, 14, 163 - 174.Google Scholar
  20. Edwards, HP., Barry, WF., and Wyspianski, JO1969Effect of differential rearing on photic evoked potentials and brightness discrimination in the albino ratDevelopmental Psychobiology, 2, 133 - 138.Google Scholar
  21. Ferchmin, PA., Eterovic, VA., and Caputto, R1970Studies of brain weight and RNA content after short periods of exposure to environmental complexityBrain Research, 20, 49 - 57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferchmin, PA., Bennett, EL., and Rosenzweig, MR1975Direct contact with enriched environment is required to alter cerebral weights in ratsJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 88, 360 - 367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forgays, DG., and Forgays, JW1952The nature of the effect of free-environmental experience on the ratJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 45, 322 - 328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gardner, EB., Boitano, JJ., Mancino, NS., D'Amico, DP., and Gardner, EL1974.Google Scholar
  25. Environmental enrichment and deprivation: Effects on learning, memory and explorationPhysiology and Behavior, 14, 321 - 327.Google Scholar
  26. Geller, E1971Some observations on the effects of environmental complexity and isolation on biochemical ontogenyIn: Brain Development and BehaviorMBSterman, DJMcGinty, and A.MAdlinolfi (Eds.)Academic Press, New York, pp277 - 296.Google Scholar
  27. Geller, E., and Yuwiler, A1968In: Ontogenesis of the BrainLJilek and STrojan (Eds.)Charles University, Prague, p277.Google Scholar
  28. Greenough, WT1976Enduring brain effects of differential experience and trainingIn: Neural Mechanisms of Learning and MemoryMRRosenzweig and ELBennett (Eds.)M.I.TPress, Cambridge, Mass., p255 - 278.Google Scholar
  29. Greenough, WT., and Volkmar, FR1973Pattern of dendritic branching in occipital cortex of rats reared in complex environmentsExperimental Neurology, 40, 491 - 504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greenough, WT., Madden, TC., and Fleischmann, TB1972Effects of isolation, daily handling, and enriched rearing on maze learningPsychonomic Science, 27, 279 - 280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hatch, A., Wiberg, GS., Balazs, T., and Grice, HC1963Long-term isolation stress in ratsScience, 142, 507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hirsch, HVB., and Spinelli, DN1970Visual experience modifies distribution of horizontally and vertically oriented receptive fields in catsScience, 168, 869 - 871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hirsch, HVB., and Spinelli, DN1970Visual experience modifies distribution of horizontally and vertically oriented receptive fields in catsScience, 168, 869 - 871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bubel, DH., and Wiesel, TN1962Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the eat's visual cortexJournal of Physiology, 160, 106 - 154.Google Scholar
  35. Hymovitch, B1952The effects of experimental variations on problem-solving in the ratJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 45, 313 - 321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Krech, D., Rosenzweig, MR., and Bennett, EL1960Effects of environmental complexity and training on brain chemistryJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 53, 509 - 519.Google Scholar
  37. Krech, D., Rosenzweig, MR., and Bennett, EL1966Environmental impoverishment, social isolation and changes in brain chemistry and anatomyPhysiology and Behavior, 1, 99 - 104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuenzle, CC., and KnUsel, A1974Mass training of rats in a superenriched environmentPhysiology and Behavior, 13, 205 - 210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lavallee, RJ1969The effects of early visual and motor experience on adult problem solving in hooded and albino ratsPsychonomic Science, 17, 21 - 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lavallee, RJ1970Effects of visual form and distance experience before maturity on adult problem-solving ability in the ratDevelopmental Psychology, 2, 257 - 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. LeBoeuf, BJ., and Peeke, HVS1969The effect of strychnine administration during development on adult maze learning in the ratPsychopharmacologia, 16, 49 - 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mailloux, JG., Edwards, HP., Barry, WF., Rowsell, HC., and Achorn, EG1974Effects of differential rearing on cortical evoked potentials of the albino ratJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 87, 475 - 480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maki, WS., Jr1971Failure to replicate effect of visual pattern restriction on brain and behaviourNature (London) New Biology, 233, 63 - 64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Malkasian, DR., and Diamond, MC1971The effects of environmental manipulation on the morphology of the neonate rat brainInternational Journal of Neuroscience, 2, 161 - 170.Google Scholar
  45. McCall, RB., Lester, ML., and Dolan, CG1969Differential rearing and the exploration of stimuli in the open fieldDevelopmental Psychology, 1, 750 - 762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mize, RR., and Murphy, EH1973Selective visual experience fails to modify receptive field properties of rabbit striate cortex neuronsScience, 180, 320 - 323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Morgan, MJ1973Effects of post-weaning environment on learning in the ratAnimal Behaviour, 21, 429 - 442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Parsons, PJ., and Spear, NE1972Long-term retention of avoidance learning by immature and adult rats as a function of environmental enrichmentJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 80, 297 - 303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Peeke, HVS., LeBoeuf, BJ., and Herz, MJ1971The effect of strychnine administration during development on adult maze learning in the ratIIDrug administration from day 51 to 70Psychopharmacologia, 19, 262 - 265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pettigrew, JD1974The effect of selective visual experience on stimulus trigger features of kitten cortical neuronsAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 228, 393 - 405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Riege, WH1971Environmental influences on brain and behavior of old ratsDevelopmemal Psychobiology, 4, 157 - 167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Riege, WH., and Morimoto, H1970Effects of chronic stress and differential environments upon brain weights and biogenic amine levels in ratsJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 71, 396 404.Google Scholar
  53. Rosenzweig, MR1968Effects of experience on brain chemistry and brain anatomyAtti della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 109, 43 - 63.Google Scholar
  54. Rosenzweig, MR1970Evidence for anatomical and chemical changes in the brain during primary learningIn: Biology of MemoryKPribram and DBroadbent (Eds.)Academic Press, New York, p69 - 85.Google Scholar
  55. Rosenzweig, MR1971Role of experience in development of neurophysiological regulatory mechanisms and in organization of the brainIn: Early Childhood: The Development of Self-regulatory MechanismsDCWalcher and DLPeters (Eds.)Academic Press, New York, p15 - 33.Google Scholar
  56. Rosenzweig, MR., and Bennett, EL1969Effects of differential environments on brain weights and enzyme activities in gerbils, rats, and miceDevelopmental Psychobiology, 2, 87 - 95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rosenzweig, MR., and Bennett, EL1972Cerebral changes in rats exposed individually to an enriched environmentJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 80, 304 - 313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rosenzweig, MR., Krech, D., and Bennett, EL1961Heredity, environment, brain biochemistry, and learningIn: Current Trends in Psychological TheoryUniversity of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, pp87 - 110.Google Scholar
  59. Rosenzweig, MR., Krech, D., Bennett, EL., and Diamond, MC1962Effects of environmental complexity and training on brain chemistry and anatomy: A replication and extensionJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 429 - 437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rosenzweig, MR., Krech, D., Bennett, EL., and Diamond, MC1968Modifying brain chemistry and anatomy by enrichment or impoverishment of experienceIn: Early Google Scholar
  61. Experience and Behavior. GNewton and SLevine (Eds.)Charles C Thomas, Springfield, III., pp258-298.Google Scholar
  62. Rosenzweig, MR., Love, W., and Bennett, EL1968Effects of a few hours a day of enriched experience on brain chemistry and brain weightsPhysiology and Behavior, 3, 819 - 825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rosenzweig, MR., Bennett, EL., and Diamond, MC1972aCerebral changes in response to experienceScientific American, 226(2), 22 - 29.Google Scholar
  64. Rosenzweig, MR., Bennett, EL., and Diamond, MC1972bCerebral effects of differential environments occur in hypophysectomized ratsJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 79, 56-66.Google Scholar
  65. Rosenzweig, MR., Bennett, EL., and Diamond, MC1972cChemical and anatomical plasticity of brain: Replications and extensions, 1970In: Macromolecules and Behavior (2nd ed.)Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp205 - 277.Google Scholar
  66. Seligman, MEP1975Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and DeathFreeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  67. Singh, D., Johnston, RJ., and Klosterman, HJ1967Effect on brain enzyme and behavior in the rat of visual pattern restriction in early lifeNature (London), 216, 1337- 1338.Google Scholar
  68. Singh, D., Maki, WS., Jr., Johnston, RJ., and Klosterman, HJ1970Effect of visual pattern restriction in early life on brain enzyme, body weight and learning in the ratNature (London), 228, 471 - 472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sperry, RW1968Plasticity of neural maturation27th Symposium of Social and Developmental Biology, Developmental Biology, Supplement 2, 306 - 327.Google Scholar
  70. Tees, RC1974Effect of visual deprivation on development of depth perception in the ratJoumal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 86, 300 - 308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Valzelli, L1973The "isolation syndrome" in micePsychopharmacologia, 3/, 305 - 320.Google Scholar
  72. Walk, RD., and Walters, CP1973Effect of visual deprivation on depth discrimination of hooded ratsJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 85, 559 - 563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Welch, BL., Brown, DG., Welch, AS., and Lin, DC1974Isolationrestrictive confinement or crowding of rats for one yearIWeight, nucleic acids and protein of brain regionsBrain Research, 75, 71 - 84.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark R. Rosenzweig
    • 1
  • Edward L. Bennett
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Lawrence Berkeley LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations