Multiple Aldehyde Reductases of Human Brain

  • Paula L. Hoffman
  • Bendicht Wermuth
  • Jean-Pierre von Wartburg

Abstract

Human brain contains four forms of aldehyde reducing enzymes. One major activity, designated AR3, has properties indicating its identity with the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase, EC 1.1.1.2. The other major form of human brain enzyme, AR1, which is also NADPH-dependent, reduces both aldehyde and ketone-containing substrates, including vitamin K3 (menadione) and daunorubicin, a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. This enzyme is very sensitive to inhibition by the flavonoids quercitrin and quercetine, and may be analogous to a daunorubicin reductase previously described in liver of other species. One minor form of human brain aldehyde reductase, AR2, demonstrates substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity which suggest its similarity to aldose reductases found in lens and other tissues of many species. This enzyme, which can also use NADH as cofactor to some extent, is the most active in reducing the aldehyde derivatives of the biogenic amines. The fourth human brain enzyme (“SSA reductase”) differs from the other forms in its ability to use NADH as well as or better than NADPH as cofactor, and in its molecular weight, which is nearly twice that of the other forms. It is quite specific for succinic semialdehyde (SSA) as substrate, and was found to be significantly inhibited only by quercetine and quercitrin. AR3 can also reduce SSA, and both enzymes may contribute to the production of γ-hydroxybutyric acid in vivo. These results indicate that the human brain aldehyde reductases can play relatively specific physiologic roles.

Keywords

Human Brain Biogenic Amine Aldose Reductase Succinic Semialdehyde Aldehyde Reductase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula L. Hoffman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bendicht Wermuth
    • 2
  • Jean-Pierre von Wartburg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsIllinois Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Medizinisch-Chemisches InstitätUniversitat BernBernSwitzerland

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