Phosphatidyl Choline and Lysophosphatidyl Choline in Mixed Lipid Micelles as Novel Drug Delivery Systems

  • David W. Yesair

Abstract

Since the early nineteen seventies, considerable research effort has been focused on the merits of using delivery systems for improving the efficiency and safety of drugs and thus realizing a higher percentage of the commercial market. Some of the projected benefits of drug delivery systems are summarized in Table 1. Of primary importance, drug delivery systems must enhance the quality of practiced medicine. For example, drug delivery systems can increase the therapeutic benefits by minimizing side effects, by increasing the efficacies, by decreasing the amount and frequency of dosing, by enhancing absorption and by affecting parameters such as the palatability and stability of the drug. Further, the drug delivery system can affect the biodegradation of drugs within the milieu of the G.I. tract and during passage through the intestine and liver. Lastly, drug delivery systems can make drugs categorically more useful.

Keywords

Bile Salt Drug Delivery System High Density Lipoprotein Phosphatidyl Choline Polar Head Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alexander, H.L., Shirley, K. and Allen, D., 1936, The route of ingested egg white to the systemic circulation, J. Clin. Invest. 15:16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bangham, A.D., DeGier, J. and Greville, G.D., 1967, Osmotic properties and water permeability of phospholipid liquid crystals, Chem. Phys. Lipid 1:225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bangham, A.D., Standish, M.M. and Watkins, J.C., 1965, Diffusion of univalent ions acros the lamellae of swollen phospholipids, J. Mol. Biol. 13: 238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bloom, B., Chaikoff, I.L. and Reinhardt, W.O., 1951, Intestinal lymph as pathway for transport of absorbed fatty acids of different chain length, Am. J. Physiol. 166:451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown, E.S., 1964, Isolation and assay of dipalmityl lecithin in lung extracts, Am. J. Physiol. 207:402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carey, M.C., Small, D.M. and Bliss, C.M., 1983, Lipid digestion and absorption, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 45:651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carrigan, P.J. and Bates, T.R., 1973, Biopharmaceutics of drugs administered in lipid-containing dosage forms I:GI absorption of griseofulvin from an oil-in-water emulsion in the rat, J. Pharm Sci. 62:1476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chapman, D., Flunck, D.J., Penkett, S.A. and Shipley, G.G., 1968, Physical studies of phospholipids. X. The effect of sonication on aqueous dispersions of egg yolk lecithin, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 163:255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Clark, B. and Hubscher, G., 1963, Monoglyceride transacylase of rat intestinal muscosa, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 70: 43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clements, J.A., 1957, Surface tension of lung extracts, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 95:170.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coert, A., Geelan, J., deVisser, J. and van der Vies, J., 1975, The pharmacology and metabolism of testosterone undecanoate (TU), a new orally active androgen, Acta Endocrinol. 79:789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Comline, R.S., Roberts, H.E. and Titchen, D.A., 1951, Route of absorption of colostrum globulin in the newborn animal, Nature 167:561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crounse, R.G., 1961, Human pharmacology of griseofulvin: The effect of fat intake on gastrointestinal absorption, J. Invest. Dermatol. 37:529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Crounse, R.G., 1963, Effective Use of Grisiolvin, Arch. Dermatol. 87:17.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    DeMarco, T.J. and Levine, R.R., 1969, Role of the lymphatics in the intestinal absorption and distribution of drugs, J. Pharmacol. Expt. Therap. 169:142.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Drummond, J.C., Bell, M.E. and Palmer, E.T., 1935, Observations of the absorption of carotene and vitamin A, Brit. Med. J. 1: 1208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grammina, T., Steinetz, B.G. and Meli, A., 1966, Pathway of absorption of orally administered ethynylestradiol-3-Cyclopentyl ether in the rat as influenced by vehicle of administration, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 121:1175.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greco, G.A., Moss, Jr., E.L. and Foley, E.J., 1959–60, Observations on treatment of fungus infections of animals with griseofulvin, Antibiot. Ann. 663.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gregoriadis, G., 1976, The carrier potential of liposomes in biology and medicine, New England J. Med. 295:704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hinder, R.A. and Kelly, K.A., 1977, Canine gastric emptying of solids and liquids, Am. J. Physiol. 233:E335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Huang, C. and Thompson, T.E., 1974, Preparation of homogeneous, single-walled phosphatidylcholine vesicles, Methods in Enz. 32 (Biomembranes, Part b):485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Iatropoulos, M.J., Milling, A., Muller, W.F., Nohynek, G., Rozman, K., Coulston, F. and Korte, F., 1975, Absorption, transport and organotropism of dichlorobiphenyl (DCB), Dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in rats, Envrionmental Res. 10:384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Juliano, R.J. and Stamp, D., 1975, The effect of particle size and charge on the clearance rates of liposomes and liposome encapsulated drug, Biophys. Biochem. Res. Communs. 63:651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kabasakalian, P., Katz, M., Rosenkrantz, B. and Townley, E., 1970, Parameters affecting absorption of griseofulvin in a human subject using urinary metabolite excretion data, J. Pharm. Sci. 59:595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kelly, K., 1981, Mobility of the stomach and gastroduodenal junction, in: “Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract,” L. R. Johnson, ed., Raven, New York.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kind, F.A., Ciaccio, L.A. and Benagiano, G., 1978, Increasing oral bioavailability of progesterone by formulation, J. Steroid Biochem. 9:83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kraml, M., Dubuc, J. and Beall, D., 1962, Gastrointestinal absorption of griseofulvin. 1. Effect of particle size, addition of surfactants, and corn oil on the level of griseolfulvin in the serum of rats, Canad. J. Biochem. Physiol. 40:1449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lazarus, H., Yuan, G., Tan, E. and Isreal, M., 1978, Comparative inhibitory effects of adriamycin, AD32, and related compounds on in vitro growth and macromolecular synthesis, Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 19:159.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    May, A.J. and Whaler, B.C., 1958, The absorption of Clostridiums botulinum type A toxin from the alimentary canal, Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 39:307.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mueller, H., 1915, The assimilation of cholesterol and its esters, J. Biol. Chem. 22:1.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Muraniski, S., Muranuski, N. and Sezaki, H., 1979, Improvement of absolute bioavailability of normally poorly absorbed drugs: inducement of the intestinal absorption of streptomycin and gentamycin by lipid-bile salt mixed micelles in rat and rabbit, Internat. J. Pharmaceut. 2: 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Notter, R.H., Holcomb, S. and Mavis, R.D., 1980, Dynamic surface properties of phosphatidylglycerol-dipalmitoryl phosphatidylcholine mixed films, Chem. Phys. Lipids 27:305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    O’Doherty, P.J.A., Kakis, G. and Kuksis, A., 1973, Role of the lumina lecithin in intestinal fat absorption, Lipids 8:249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Papahadjopoulos, D., 1978, Liposomes and their use in biology and medicine, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 308.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Patel, H.M. and Ryman, B.E., 1976, Oral administration of insulin by encapsulation within liposomes. FEBS Letters 62:60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pattle, R.E., 1955, Properties, function and origin of alveoler lining layer, Nature 175:1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Roby, T.O. and Mazzola, V., 1972, Elimination of the carrier state of bovine anaplasmosis with imidocarb, Am. J. Vet. Res. 33:1931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rusznyak, I., Foldi, M. and Szabo, S., 1967, Lymphatics and Lymph Circulation, Physiology and Pathology, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schmidt, G., 1965, Uber die trypanocide Wirksamkeit von terephthalaniliden, Experientia 21:276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sears, B. and Yesair, D.W., 1981, Xenobiotic Delivery Vehicles, Method of Using Them, U. S. Patent 4,298,594, 3 November.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Senior, J.R., 1964, Intestinal absorption of fats, J. Lipid Res. 5:495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Small, D.M., 1968, A classification of biologic lipids based upon their interaction in aqueous systems, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 45:108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Small, D.M., Penkett, S.A. and Chapman, D., 1969, Studies on simple and mixed bile salts micelles by nuclear resonance spectroscopy, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 176:178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Takada, K., Yoshimura, H., Yoshikawa H., Muraniski, S., Yasumura, T. and Oka, T., 1986, Enhanced selective lymphatic delivery of cyclosporin A by solubilizers and intensified immunosuppressive activity against mice skin allograft, Pharmaceut. Res. 3:48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tall, A.R. and Small, D.M., 1978, Plasma high-density lipoproteins, New England J. Med. 299:1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tso, P., Kendrick, H., Balint, J.A. and Simmonds, W.J., 1981, Role of biliary phosphatidylcholine in the absorption and transport of dietary triolein in the rat, Gastroenterology 80:60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Watkins, J.C., 1968, The surface properties of pure phospholipids in relation to those of lung extracts, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 152:293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yesair, D.W., Micellular drug delivery system, Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), Internat. Pub. No. 83/00294, 3 February, 1983.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yesair, D.W., 1985, Lipid macromolecules as chemotherapeutic targets, in: “Experimental and Clinical Progress in Cancer Chemotherapy,” F. M. Muggia, ed., Martrinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yesair, D.W. Composition for delivery of orally administered substances, Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), Internat. Pub. No. 86/05694, 9 October 1986.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yoffey, J.M. and Courtice, F.C., 1970, Lymphatics, Lymph and the Lymphomyeloid Complex, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yoshikawa, H., Takada, K., Satok, Y., Naruse, N. and Muraniski, S., 1985, Potential of enterai absorption of human interferon alpha and selective transfer into lymphatics in rats, Pharmaceut Res. 2:249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • David W. Yesair
    • 1
  1. 1.BioMolecular Products, Inc.ByfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations