Botulism

  • William Terranova

Abstract

Botulism is uncommon in the United States, but it may rapidly cause death, and contaminated, commercially distributed products may expose many persons. It is both a medical and an epidemiological emergency. Because of extensive media coverage of recent outbreaks and reports of contaminated commercial products, public interest in and awareness of this disease have greatly increased.

Keywords

Botulinal Toxin Clostridium Botulinum Ventilatory Failure Botulinum Type Wound Botulism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arnon, S. S., Miidura, T. F., and Clay, S. A., Infant botulism: Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory aspects, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 237:1946–1951 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnon, S. S., Midura, T. F., Damus, K., Wood, R. M., and Chim, J., Intestinal infection and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum as one cause of sudden infant death syndrome, Lancet 1:1273–1277 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baird-Parker, A. C., and Freame, B., Combined effect of water activity, pH, and temperature on the growth of Clostridium botulinum from spores and vegetative cell inocula, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 30:420–429 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barker, W. H., Weissman, J. B., Dowell, V. R., Gutman, L., and Kautter, D. A., Type B botulism outbreak caused by a commercial food product, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 237:456–459 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Black, R. E., and Arnon, S. S., Botulism in the United States, 1976, J.Infect. Dis. 136:829–832 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boroff, D. A., and Shu-Chen, G., Radioimmunoassay for type A toxin of Clostridium botulinum, Appl. Microbiol. 25:545–549 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burke, G. S., The occurrence of Bacillus botulinus in nature, J.Bacteriol. 4:541–553 (1919).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burke, G. S., Notes on Bacillus botulinus, J. Bacteriol. 4:555–565 (1919).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cardella, M. A., Botulinum toxoids, in: Botulism (K. H. Lewis and K. Cassel, eds.), U.S. Public Health Service, Cincinnati, 1964.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Centers for Disease Control, Botulism in The United States, 1899–1973: Handbook for Epidemiologists, Clinicians, and Laboratory workers, p. 3, 1974.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Centers for Disease Control, Follow-up: Botulism associated with commercial cherry peppers, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 25:148 (1976).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Centers for Disease Control, Infant botulism-Arizona, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 27:411–412 (1978).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cherington, M., Botulism: Ten-year experience, Arch. Neurol. 30:432–437 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cherington, M., and Ginsberg, S., Type B botulism: Neurophysiologic studies, Neurology 21:43–46 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Clay, S. A., Ramseyer, J. C., Fishman, L. S., and Sedgwick, R. P., Acute infantile motor unit disorder: Infant botulism, Arch. Neruol. 34:236–243 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Davis, B. D., Dulbecco, R., Eisen, H. N., and Wood, W. B., Microbiology, pp. 672–674, Harper and Row, New York, 1967.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Davis, B. D., Dulbecco, R., Eisen, H. N., and Wood, W. B., Microbiology, pp. 828–831, Harper and Row, New York, 1967.Google Scholar
  18. 17a.
    Dickson, E. C., Botulism: A clinical and experimental study, Rockefeller Inst. Med. Res. Monogr., No. 8, pp. 1–117 (1918).Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Dolman, C. E., Darby, G. E., and Lane, R. F., Type E botulism due to salmon eggs, Can. J. Public Health 46:135–141 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Dolman, C. E., Tomisch, M., Campbell, C. C. R., and Laing, W. B., Fish eggs as a cause of human botulism: Two outbreaks in British Columbia due to type E and B botulinal toxins, J. Infect. Dis. 106:5–19 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Dowell, V. R., and Hawkins, T. M., Laboratory Methods in Anaerobic Bacteriology: Cdc Laboratory Manual, Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, 1974.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Dowell, V. R., Mccroskey, L. M., Hatheway, C. L., Lombard, G. L., Hughes, J. Mi., and Merson, M. H., Coproexamination for botulinal toxin and Clostridium botulinum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 238:1829–1832 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Eisenberg, M., and Bender, T. R., Botulism in Alaska, 1947 through 1974, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 235:35–38 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Eklund, M. W., Poysky, F. T., and Boatman, E. J., Bacteriophages of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F and nontoxigenic strains resembling type E, J. Virol. 3:270–274 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Eklund, M. W., Poysky, F. T., Reed, S. M., and Smith, C. A., Bacteriophage and the toxigenicity of Clostridium botulinum type C, Science 172:480–482 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Engel, W. K., Brief, small, abundant motor unit potentials, Neurology 25:173–176 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Federal Register, Thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers: Manufacture and processing, 38, No. 16, pp. 2398–2410, Jan. 24, 1973.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Federal Register, Thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers: Records Retention Requirements, 39, No. 20, p. 37–54, Jan. 24, 1974.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    Federal Register, Thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers: Miscellaneous amendments, 39, No. 63, p. 11,876, April 1, 1974.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Fiock, M. A., Cardella, M. A., and Gearinger, N. F., Studies on immunity to toxins of Clostridium botulinum. Ix. Immunologic response of man to purified pentavalent A, B, C, D, E botulinum toxoid, J. Immunol. 90:697–702 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Fiock, M. A., Devine, L. F., Gearinger, N. F., Duff, J. T., Wright, G. G., and Kadull, P. J., Studies on immunity to toxins of Clostridium botulinum. VIII. Immunological response of man to purified bivalent Ab botulinum toxoid, J. Immunol. 88:277 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Gangarosa, E. J., Donadio, J. A., Armstrong, R. W., Meyer, K. F., Brachman, P. S., and Dowell, V. R., Botulism in the United States, 1899–1969, Am. J. Epidemicl. 93:93–101 (1971).Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Gimenez, D. F., and Ciccarelli, A. S., Another type of Clostridium botulinum, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. Abt. 1: 215:212–220 (1970).Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Gunn, R. A., and Terranova, W. A., Botulism in the United States, 1977, Rev. Infect. Dis. 1:722–725 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Gunnison, J. B., Cummings, J. R., and Meyer, K. F., Clostridium botulinum type E, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 35:278–280 (1936–1937) .Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    Guyton, A. C., and Macdonald, M. A., Physiology of botulinus toxin, Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 57:578–591 (1947).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Gutman, L., Pathophysiologic aspects of human botulism, Arch. Neurol. 33:975–79 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Horwitz, M. A., Hughes, J. M., Merson, M. H., and Gangarosa, E. J., Foodborne botulism in the United States, 1970–1975, J. Infect. Dis. 136:153–159 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Ito, K. A., Seslar, D. J., Mercern, W. A., and Meyer, K. F., The thermal and chlorine resistance of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, and E spores, in: Botulism 1966 (M. Ingram and T. A. Roberts, eds.), pp. 108–122, Chapman and Hall, London, 1967.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Johnson, H. M., Brenner, K., Angelotti, R., and Hall, H. E., Serological studies of types A, B, and E botulinal toxins by passive hemagglutination and bentonite flocculation, J. Bacteriol. 91:967–974 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    Johnson, R. O., Clay, S. A., and Arnon, S. S., Di- agnosis and management of infant botulism, Am. J. Dis. Child. 133:586–593 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Kao, I., Drachman, D. B., and Price, D. L., Botulinum toxin: Mechanism of presynaptic blockade, Science 193:1256–1258 (1976) .PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Kerner, C. A. J., Neue Beobachtungen uber die in Württemberg so häufig vorfallenden todlichen Vergiftungen durch in den Genuss geraucherter Wurste, Tübingen, 1829; cited in Dickson. (17a)Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Koenig, G. M., Spickard, A., Cardella, M. A., and Rogers, D. E., Clinical and laboratory observations on type B botulism in man, Medicine 43:517–545 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Koenig, G. M., Drutz, D. J., Mushlin, A. I., Schaffner, W., and Rogers, D. E., Type B botulism in man, Am. J.Med. 42:209–219 (1967) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Landman, G., Ueber die Urasche der Darmstadter Bohnenvergiftung, Hyg. Rundsch. 10:449–452 (1904).Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Lynt, R. K., Soloman, H. M., and Kautter, D. A., Immunofluorescence among strains of Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia by direct and indirect methods, J.Food Sci. 36:594–599 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Maclennan, J. D., Anaerobic infection of war wounds in the Middle East, Lancet 2:63–66 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Mayhen, J. W., and Gorbach, S. L., Rapid gas chromatographic technique for presumptive detection of Clostridium botulinum in contaminated food, Appl. Microbiol. 29:297–299 (1975).Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Merson, M. H., and Dowell, V. R., Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory aspects of wound botulism, N. Engl. J. Med. 289:1005–1010 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Merson, M. H., Hughes, J. M., Dowell, V. R., Taylor, A., Banker, W. H., and Gangarosa, E. J., Current trends in botulism in the United States, J.Am. Med. Assoc. 229:1305–1308 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Mestrandea, L. W., Rapid detection of Clostridium botulinum toxin by capillary tube diffusion, Appl. Microbiol. 27:1017–1022 (1974).Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Meyer, K. F., and Dubovsky, B. J., The distribution of the spores of B. botulinus in California, J. Infect. Dis. 31:541–555 (1922).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Midura, T. F., and Arnon, S. S., Infant botulism: Identification of Clostridium botulinum and its toxin in faeces, Lancet 2:934–936 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Midura, T. F., Taclindo, C., Nygaard, G. S., Bodily, H. L., and Wood, R. M., Use of immunofluorescence and animal tests to detect growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in food, Appl. Microbiol. 16:102–105 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Miller, C. A., and Anderson, A. W., Rapid detection and quantitative estimation of type A botulinum toxin by electroimmunodiffusion, Infect. Immun. 4:126–129 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Mitsui, N., Kiritani, K., and Nishida, S., A lysin(s) in lysates of Clostridium botulinum A190 induced by ultraviolet ray or mitomycin C, Jpn. J. Microbiol. 17:353–360 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Moller, V., and Scheibel, I., Preliminary report on the isolation of an apparently new type Clostridium botulinum, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 48:80 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Ono, T., Kanashimada, T., and Iida, H., Studies on the serum therapy of type E botulism (part Iii), Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 23:177 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Petersen, I., and Broman, A., Electromyographic findings in a case of botulism, Nord. Med. 65:259 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Pivnick, H., Johnston, M. A., Thacker, C., and Rubin, L. J., Effect of nitrite on destruction and germination of Clostridium botulinum and putrefactive anaerobes 3679 and 3679 h in meat and in buffer, Can. Inst. Food Technol.J. 3:103–109 (1970).Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Roberts, T. A., and Ingram, M., The resistance of spores of Clostridium botulinum type E to heat and radiation, J.Appl. Bacteriol. 28:125–137 (1965).Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Roberts, T. A., and Ingram, M., Radiation resistance of spores of Clostridium species in aquaeous suspension, Food Sci. 30:879–885 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Roberts, T. A., and Hobbs, G., Low temperature growth characteristics of clostridia, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 31:75–88 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rustigian, R., and Cipriani, A., The bacteriology of open wounds, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 133:224–230 (1947).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Sakaguchi, G. S., Sakaguchi, S., Kozaki, S., Sugii, S., and Ohishi, I., Cross reaction in reversed passive hemagglutination between Clostridium botulinum type A and B toxins and its avoidance by the use of antitoxic component immunoglobin isolated by affinity chromatography, Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 27:161–172 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Schroeder, K., and Tallefsrud, A., Botulism from fermented trout, Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen. 82:1084 (1962).Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    Segner, W. P., and Schmidt, C. F., Resistance of spores of marine and terrestrial strains of Clostridium botulinum type C, Appl. Microbiol. 22:1030–1033 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Shield, L. K., Wilkinson, R. G., and Ritchie, M., Infant botulism in Australia, Med. J. Aust. 1:157 (1978).Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Smith, L. D., Botulism: The Organism, Its Toxins, the Disease, pp. 15–33, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1977.Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    Terranova, W. A., Palumbo, J. N., and Breman, J. G., Ocular findings in botulism type B, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 241:479–477 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Terranova, W. A., Breman, J. G., Locey, R. P., and Speck, S., Botulism type B: Epidemiologic aspects of an extensive outbreak, Am. J. Epidemiol. 108:150–156 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Turner, H. D., Brett, E. M., Gilbert, R. J., Ghosh, A. C., and Liebeschuetz, H. J., Infant botulism in Fngland, Ianrpt 1:1277–1278 (1978).Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Tyler, H. R., Physiologic observations in human botulism, Arch. Neurol. 9:661–670 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    United States Department of Agriculture, Home Canning of Fruits and Vegetables, Home and Garden Bulletin No. 8, 1975.Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Van Ermengem, E., Ueber einen neuen anaeroben Bacillus and seine Beziehungen zum Botulismus, Z. Hyg. Infekttionskr. 26:1–56 (1897).Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    Vermilyea, B. L., Walker, H. W., and Ayres, J. C., Detection of botulinal toxins by immunodiffusion, Appl. Microbiol. 16:21–24 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Zezones, H., and Hutchings, I. J., Thermal resistance of Clostridium botulinum (62A) spores as affected by fundamental food constituents, Food Technol. 19:1003–1005 (1965) .Google Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Arnon, S. S., Midura, T. F., and Clay, S. I., Infant botulism: Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 237:1946–1951 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Centers for Disease Control, Botulism in the United States, 1899–1977: Handbook for Epidemiologists, Clinicians, and Laboratory Workers (1978).Google Scholar
  3. Gangarosa, E. J., Botulism, in: Infectious Diseases (P. D. Hoeprich, ed.), pp. 1031–1036, Harper and Row, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1972.Google Scholar
  4. Merson, M. H., and Dowell, V. R., Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory aspects of wound botulism, N. Engl. J. Med. 289:1005–1010 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Smith, L. D., Botulism: The Organism, Its Toxins, the Disease, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1977.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Terranova
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryStanford University Medical CenterPalo AltoUSA

Personalised recommendations