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The Interaction between Prenatal and Socioeconomic Effects on Growth and Development in Childhood

  • S. M. Garn
  • Shelly D. Pesick
  • J. J. Pilkington
Chapter

Abstract

It has long been known that socioeconomic status (SES) has considerable influence on both size and growth. In the days of the Czars and the Emperors, children whose fathers held menial occupations were systematically smaller than those of the professional class (cf Krogman, 1941). More than 80 years later, in the Ten-State Nutrition Survey of the United States, low per-capita income and low income-to-needs ratios were still associated with smaller size and with delayed ossification timing (Garn and Clark, 1975). It can also be shown that poverty is more growth-depressing for males than for females, even in intrauterine life (Garn, Shaw and McCabe, 1977a).

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References

  1. Bayley, N., 1969, “Bayley scales of infant development”. The Psychological Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Garn, S.M. and Clark, D., 1975, Nutrition, growth, development and maturation: Findings from the Ten-State Nutrition Survey of 1968–1970, Pediatrics 56: 306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Garn, S.AM, Shaw, H.A. and McCabe, K.D. 1977a, Birth size and growth appraisal, J. Pediatr., 90: 1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Garn
    • 1
  • Shelly D. Pesick
    • 1
  • J. J. Pilkington
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Human Growth and DevelopmentUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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