Biomedical and Endocrinological Aspects of Normal Growth and Development

  • Andrea Prader


As a pediatrician and clinician, I am preoccupied with abnormal growth and maturation and the study of causes and therapeutic possibilities of such abnormal situations. However, one cannot do this without becoming deeply interested in normal growth and maturation. Without knowledge of normal growth and development a precise and meaningful analysis of abnormal growth and maturation is not possible. Knowledge of the mechanisms regulating normal growth help us to recognise the causes of growth deficiencies. On the other hand, abnormal growth frequently represents — as I will demonstrate — an ‘experiment’ of Nature which permits a better insight into the control mechanisms of normal growth. Thus, there is an interaction and a crossfertilisation between studies of normal and studies of abnormal growth. For me, this crossfertilisation is the most exciting aspect of our work.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albright, F., Bloomberg, E. and Smith, P.H., 1940, Post-Menopausal osteoporosis, Trans. Assoc. Vim. Phy 55: 298.Google Scholar
  2. Apter, D., 1980, Serum steroids and pituitary hormones in female puberty: A partly longitudinal study, Clin Endocrinol., 12: 107.Google Scholar
  3. Apter, D., Lenko, H.-L., Perheentupa, J., S3derholm, A. and Vihko, R. 1982, Subnormal pubertal increases of serum androgens in Turner’s syndrome, Hormone res 16: 164.Google Scholar
  4. Aynsley-Green, A., Zachmann, M. and Prader, A., 1976, Interrelation of the therapeutic effects of growth hormone and testosterone on growth in hypopituitarism, J. Pediatr 89: 992.Google Scholar
  5. Berelowitz, M., Szabo, M., Frohmann, L.A., Firestone, D., Chu, L. and Hintz, R.L., 1981, Somatomedin-C mediates growth hormone negative feedback by effects on both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, Science, 212: 1279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bierich, J.R., Moeller, H. and Ranke, M., 1981, Stunted growth due to peripheral resistance to somatomedin, a new syndrome, Ped. Res., 15: 1541, (abstract).Google Scholar
  7. Corvol, M.T., 1981, Hormonal control of cartilage metabolism. Joint meeting Lawson Wilkins, Pediatr, Endocrinol. Soc. and Eur. Soc. Pediatr. Endocrinol., Geneva.Google Scholar
  8. Knowlton, K., Kenyon, A.T., Sandiford, I., Lotwin, v. and Fricker, R., 1942, Comparative study of metabolic effects of estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate in man, J. Clin. Endocr., 2: 671.Google Scholar
  9. Lanes, R., Plotnick, L.P., Spencer, E.M., Daughaday, W.H. and Kowarski, A.A., 1980, Dwarfism associated with normal serum growth hormone and increased bioassayable, receptorassayable, and immunoassayable somatomedin, J Clin Endocrinol. Metab., 50: 485.Google Scholar
  10. Lemarchand-Béraud, Th., Zufferey, M.M., Reymond, M. and Rey, I., 1.982, Maturation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis in adolescent girls, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 54: 241.Google Scholar
  11. Marsaall, W.A., 1974, Interrelationship of skeletal maturation, sexual development and somatic growth in man, Ann. Hum. Biol., 1: 29.Google Scholar
  12. Molinari, L., Largo, R.H. and Prader, A., 1980, Analysis of the growth spurt at age seven (mid-growth-spurt), Helve Paediat. Acta, 35: 325.Google Scholar
  13. Pieters, G.F.F.M., Smals, A.G.H. and Kloppenborg, P.W.C., 1980, Defective suppression of growth hormone after oral glucose loading in adolescence, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab 51: 265.Google Scholar
  14. Prader, A., 1983, Hormonal regulation of growth and the adolescent growth spurt: Proceeding of the second In-;ernational Conference on the Control of the Onset of Puberty 1981, Academic Press (in print).Google Scholar
  15. Ranke, M.B. and Bierich, J.R., 1981, Somatomedin und Wachstumsregulation. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie, 25, Symposium, Berlin.Google Scholar
  16. Richardson, D.W. and Short, R.V., 1978, Time of onset of sperm production in boys, J. Biosoc. Sci Suppl. 5: 15.Google Scholar
  17. Sizonenko, P.C. and Paunier, L., 1982, Failure of DHEA-oenenthate to promote growth, Pediatr. Res 16: 888 (abstract).Google Scholar
  18. Tanner, J.M. and Cameron, N., 1980, Investigation of the mid-growth spurt in height, weight and limb circumferences in single-year velocity data from the London 1966–67 growth survey, Ann, Hum Biol., 7: 565.Google Scholar
  19. Tanner, J.M., Prader, A., Habich, H. and Ferguson-Smith, M.A., 1959, Genes on the Y chromosomes influencing rate of maturation in man. Skeletal age studies in children with Klinefelter’s (XXY) and Turner’s (XO) syndromes, Lancet II: 141.Google Scholar
  20. Tanner, J.M., 1962, Growth and Adolescence, in: Blackwell Scientific Publications, ed. 2 Oxford, 325.Google Scholar
  21. Wälli, R., Stettler, T., Largo, R.H., Fanconi, A., Prader, A., 1980, Gewicht, Linge, und Kopfumfang neugeborener Kinder und ihre Abhängigkeit von mütterlichen und kindlichen Faktoren, Helv. paediat. Acta 35: 397.Google Scholar
  22. Zachmann, M. and Prader, A., 1972, Interactions of growth hormone with other hormones, in: Human Growth Hormone, A. Stuart Mason, ed., William Heinemann Medical Books Ltd., 39Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Prader
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Zurich KinderspitalZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations