Fracture Mechanics

  • Roger Edwin Cooper

Abstract

Fracture mechanics offers a way of predicting the behavior of preexisting sharp flaws in a structure from a knowledge of the material properties, conditions of use, and geometrical details of that structure. The behavior of such flaws is important—if they grow under the influence of loading and possibly environment they may reach a size at which they cause loss of function of the structure (e.g., fluid leakage) or they may attain a critical size at which they propagate rapidly, causing sudden and catastrophic fracture. Using fracture mechanics one may calculate the maximum permissible flaw size that a structure can withstand for a given constructional material and usage and then arrange nondestructive inspection of the structure to detect flaws of that level both after manufacture and periodically during the lifetime of the structure. This approach may be contrasted with the conventional design method of sizing a structure according to calculated nominal stresses and the yield strength of the material combined with an empirically derived safety factor. This approach ignores the existence of flaws except as part of the safety factor. It is therefore inherently less precise and for brittle materials and weight-critical structures entails undesirably large safety factors.

Keywords

Fracture Toughness Fatigue Crack Stress Intensity Factor Plane Strain Crack Opening Displacement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger Edwin Cooper
    • 1
  1. 1.Ministry of DefenceAtomic Weapons Research EstablishmentAldermaston, BerkshireUK

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