Photon-Echo Zeeman Quantum Beats in Cesium Hyperfine Levels
Photon echo quantum beats were first reported by Lambert et al.  who observed echo modulations as a function of excitation pulse separation in ruby at low temperature. The modulations in the echo signal arise when a set of nondegenerate levels in the excited or ground state simultaneously participates in the echo process giving rise to interference terms in the coherent oscillating dipole moment. In ruby the quantum beats were attributed to Cr-Al superhyperfine interactions . A semi-classical analysis of the general problem of photon echo quantum beats was given by Lambert, Compaan, and Abella , using methods of Gordon et al. . Subsequent theoretical work was doen by Schenzle et al.  while observations of echo quantum beats have been reported in NH2D  and in cesium vapor .
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