Squeezed States in Phase-Sensing Interferometers

  • Roy S. Bondurant
  • Jeffrey H. Shapiro
Conference paper


The use of squeezed states in Michelson interferometer gravity-wave detectors was considered by Caves1, and a substantial improvement in performance over conventional (coherent state) interferometers was predicted. Caves’ work dealt in detail only with direct detection methods, whereas it is known that optical homodyne detection of squeezed states generally provides a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than does direct detection. Furthermore, a minimum uncertainty squeezed state is the optimum state to use with homodyne detection, as it yields the highest SNR of any state2. In this paper, phase-sensing interferometers will be considered with respect to their quantum state input/output characteristics, and the value of using homodyne rather than direct detection will be examined.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. M. Caves, Quantum Mechanical Noise in an Interferometer, Phys. Rev. D 23: 1693 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. P. Yuen, States that Give the Maximum Signal-to-Quantum Noise Ratio for a Fixed Energy, Phys. Lett. 56A: 105 (1976).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. P. Yuen and J. H. Shapiro, Optical Communication with Two-Photon Coherent States. III: Quantum Measurements Realizable with Photoemissive Detectors, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-26: 78 (1980).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. P. Yuen, Two-Photon Coherent States of the Radiation Field, Phys. Rev. A13: 2226 (1976).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. M. Caves, Quantum-Mechanical Radiation Pressure Fluctuations in an Interferometer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45: 75 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Carruthers and M. M. Nieto, Phase and Angle Variables in Quantum Mechanics, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40: 411 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Loudon, “The Quantum Theory of Light,” Oxford University, Oxford (1973) Chap. 7.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. H. Shapiro and S. S. Wagner, Phase and Amplitude Uncertainties in Heterodyne Detection, to be submitted to IEEE J. Quant. Electron.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roy S. Bondurant
    • 1
  • Jeffrey H. Shapiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Research Laboratory of ElectronicsMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations