Maxwell Fields in the Vicinity of an Atom: Are they Essentially Classical?
The electromagnetic field operators in the Heisenberg picture obey Maxwell’ s equations with the current sources dependent on dynamical electron field operators. The equations of motion for the electron field operators are similar to the Schrödinger equation in the presence of external fields. When the sources are atoms and molecules, the Coulomb gauge is the natural choice since the static interactions between charges completely separate from the radiative interactions.
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