Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing Using Phase Conjugate Pump Waves

  • M. C. Gower
  • G. Davis
  • A. F. Gibson
Conference paper


The most commonly used techniques for generating phase conjugate (PC) signals are degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). However, these two processes have contrasting requirements for producing high quality wavefront correction. Using DFWM, high quality pump beams are required for good reproduction of the probe beam. On the other hand, while SBS readily conjugates aberrated pump beams, unlike DFWM it is a threshold process and usually requires much higher intensities. For the majority of common laboratory laser sources these high intensities can usually only be generated by tight focusing of the laser output. This need for tight focusing and the associated reduction of the image size in the Brillouin medium clearly limits the usefulness of SBS for phase conjugation in applications, such as photolithography, in which the phase aberrations across the beam are on a ‘fine’ scale. To our knowledge, reports of the smallest aberration feature which have been corrected for using an SBS phase conjugate mirror are ~ 20 µm.1 However, features as small as ~ 0.5 µm have been reproduced using a DFWM phase conjugate mirror.2


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. I. Sokolovskaia, G. L. Brekhovskikh and A. D. Kudriavtseva, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 554 (1983).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. D. Levenson, K. M. Johnson, V. C. Hanchett and K. Chiang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 737 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. Basov and I. Zubarev, Appl. Phys. 20, 261 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. L. Abrams, C. R. Giuliano and J. F. Lam, Optics Letts. 6, 131 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. C. Gower and R. G. Caro, Optics Letts. 7, 162 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. C. Gower, Optics Letts. 7, 423 (1982).ADSCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. G. Caro and M. C. Gower, Appl. Phys. Letts. 39, 855 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. R. G. Caro and M. C. Gower, I. E.E.E. J. Quant. Electr. QE-18, 1376 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    M. C. Gower and R. G. Caro, Proceedings of Laser ‘81, pp 808–813, Ed. V. J. Corcoran, S.T.S. Press (1982).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. C. Gower
    • 1
  • G. Davis
    • 2
  • A. F. Gibson
    • 1
  1. 1.Laser DivisionSERC Rutherford Appleton LaboratoryChilton, Didcot, OxonEngland
  2. 2.Clarendon LaboratoryOxford UniversityOxfordEngland

Personalised recommendations