Quantum Nondemolition Measurements in Quantum Optics
The concept of a quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement has been introduced over the past few years(1–6) to enable the detection, in principle, of very weak forces, below the level of the quantum noise of the detector. For example, the force may be due to a gravitational wave driving a resonant mass oscillator. Such forces displace the oscillator by less than the width of the ground state. Thus any attempt to monitor the force by the usual methods (e.g. position measurements) would produce a stochastic sequence of results entirely masking the effect of the gravitational wave.
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